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Encyclopedia Phoeniciana

World's largest web compilation of Phoenician resources & studies -- Equivalent to 2,000 printed pages

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It is the largest web compilation & repository of studies about the origin, history, geography, religion, arts, thinkers, trade, industry, mythology, language, literature, music, wars, archaeology and culture of the Canaanite Phoenicians.
Language, Memory and Identity in the Middle East, the Case of Lebanon by
Dr. Franck Salameh Portrait of the Gods
Language, Memory and Identity in the Middle East, the Case of Lebanon by by Dr. F.Salameh and his

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"Portrait of the Gods," The Lost Lands of the Phoenician Canaanites...in Peru by William James Veall
Ban Wikipedia en.wikipedia is a non-peer-reviewed website
with agenda & is anti-Lebanese & anti-Semitic 

FORVM Award For Classical Studies

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Mission Statement

This site contains an anthology and encyclopedic reference of Canaan/Phoenicia and its people (please see Introduction: Summary).

Note: Phoenicians, Canaanites & Punic/ Carthaginians are the same people: Eastern Canaanites called Phoenicians by the Greeks & Western Canaanites called Punic by the Romans. Both referred to themselves as Canaanite. blank

Approach to History

In writing this history, I tried to be open to new and sometimes controversial subjects; hence, some sections may contradict others in this site, or contain quasi archaeology. However, I won't tolerate blatantly outrageous claims. I categorically affirm that I have  NO political, religious or ethnic agenda  in promoting and disseminating information about my Phoenician Canaanites ancestors. Suggestions of nationalism, fanaticism or political propaganda are emphatically rejected.

Beginning with the original Canaanite Phoenicians and the various ethnic groups who intermarried with them over thousands of years. Though the main stock of these people is Canaanite, they also include others who were assimilated by choice or invasion. Hence, people like the Philistines, Assyrians, Macedonians, Mesopotamian, Persian, Greeks, Romans, Syriacs, Byzantines ...etc. who settled in Phoenicia or its colonies and called them their home are included in this scope. The site is not meant to be nationalistic but attempts to identify the said people's contribution to the ancient and modern world.

Phoenicia Died Out Misinformation

A number of historians ignorantly claim that Phoenicia ceased to exist in 64 BC, when it became part of the Roman world. However, official records indicate that in 425 AD Phoenicia Prima was subdivided into two provinces, Phoenicia Maritima and Phoenicia Libanensis by the Romans. In early Byzantine times, Phoenicia was governed by the Count of Phoenicia. Further, excavations of at Tel Kadesh (158 BC) in Israel as well as the witness of Saint Augustine (400 AD), Church Councils of Tyre (449 & 515 AD), the Fall of Phoenicia to the Arabs (640 AD) and the honorary living title "Metropolitan Archbishop of Phoenicia Maritima"which Lebanese bishops continue to carry today (see page with translation -- MP3 Byzantine psaltica chants: Bishop of Beirut & Bishop of Tripoli) are a few of many solid proofs that Phoenicia and its people live on despite the misinformation.

Religious Books & Historical Fiction

There is some history in the Bible, Torah, apocrypha & other religious writings, but using any of these books for historical research and discussions is unacceptable. I am a Christian and do respect the Bible as a book of faith not history. Holy books and their mythological stories are unreliable historical sources; however, some historical outlines may be used in very limited terms. So-called proofs of historical or genealogical significance based on all books of faith are respectfully rejected. Those who are displeased with my statements on these books are invited to leave this site immediately -- no discussions. Heretical Evangelicals a.k.a. Fundamentalist Christians, conservative Jews or Muslims, consider yourselves duly warned that you will be severely dealt with, if you do not stop badgering me with your related impudent e-mails. You may not question my opinion on the didactic but non-literal interpretation of holy books.

The Semites -- A name invented in the 1700's

Bible fanatics continue to shamefully write to me on the Phoenicians being the "cursed" descendent of Shem using the Bible as supporting "evidence." This claim is completely unfounded. The term Semites is applied to a group of people who inhabited the Levant and spoke similar languages but were not necessarily of the same or identical ethnic origin -- Arabs, Israelis, Phoenicians, Aramaeans, Syriac ...etc. The expression is derived from the mythical Biblical table of nations & the descendants of the fictional character Noah and his sons, Shem, Ham or Japheth. The term Semite does not have any historical origin. It came into use at the end of the 18th century* & thereafter became a standard technical term. Like many other common mistakes -- such as lumping all the peoples of the Middle East into one pan-Arab group -- the term Semite was adopted & used without denoting true ethnicity. The same applies to Hamites & Japhethites.
* The term Semite was proposed at first for the languages related to the Hebrew by Ludwig Schlözer, in Eichhorn's 'Repertorium', vol. VIII (Leipzig, 1781), p. 161. Through Eichhorn the name then came into general usage (cf. his 'Einleitung in das Alte Testament' (Leipzig, 1787), I, p. 45. In his 'Gesch. der neuen Sprachenkunde', pt. I (Göttingen, 1807) it had already become a fixed technical term. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII

I Accuse Eurocentrics, Judeocentrics, Arabists & Evangelical Fundamentalist for Stifling Phoenician History

It became evident to me during my research that various forces impacted almost all Phoenician/Canaanite subjects. In short, I found that historians and archaeologists were predominantly inclined to Eurocentrism (especially Hellenistic supremacist who think that the Greeks had exclusive access to knowledge) or Judeocentrism. Specifically, Phoenician thinkers were ignored and their work credited to the Greeks, Romans or Israelites.

N.B. The red-highlighted "formulae" are to be applied to all the paragraphs that follow though they don't negate racial intermarriages. Comments or correspondence regarding these points are regretfully not open for discussion. ABUSE of open dialogue has made this measure necessary. All other subjects are, of course, open for discussions.

Phoenicians are not Arabs, Israelis, or sub-Saharan (black) Africans; Canaanite Phoenicians emigrated to North African, Spain & coastal Mediterranean and Islands)

On the other hand, minimalists/nihilists (as referred to by Biblical Archaeologists) dismiss the 5 books of Moses and with them the exile in Egypt of Israelites, Exodus...etc as nothing but fiction written later than 1000 BC. With that they dismiss the existence of Kings David and Solomon. Their position is considered anti-Semitic by some; and they claim that the Israelites were actually Canaanites themselves. By doing that they confuse Phoenician Canaanite history with Israeli history (see the page entitled Stealing"). The same is further aggravated by some fundamentalist Christians, British Israelism and the confusion over equating Dan, the lost tribe of Israel, with the Phoenicians, not to mention the preposterous fiction that is taught by the LDS Mormons or Anti-Semites.

Roman Bad Press, Bible Writers, and Fanatics

Also, anti-Phoenician sentiments were the result of bad press by Roman historians, particularly after the Punic wars, and Jewish zealotism and hate of Phoenician religion by Bible writers. This was particularly so because of the infestation of pagan worship in the religion of the Israel caused by Queen Jezebel of Israel (a Phoenician Princess). Fundamentalist obsession with the literal interpretation of their religious book or political fanaticism of others with various agenda cloud the truth.

Arabists' Antagonism

Many of various religious backgrounds from Arab countries, especially Lebanon and Levant pan-Arabists or fanatical pan-Islamists simply cannot tolerate the mention of the Phoenicians coupleor their descendent in the modern world. They assume such a mention has political and religious overtones. However, Phoenician blood runs through their own veins themselves and most people in the region -- Phoenician does not mean Maronite Christian only, something which nobody claims but which Arabists assume. Further, there is no reason for those aforementioned who suffer from this Phoenician Complex to deny their heritage. Such people have no shame and are fools to ignore their great heritage. Many other people from the Lebanon, Levant and western Mediterranean, including European and North African Muslim, Arab countries proudly accept Phoenician as their heritage and ancestry. (my witnesses testify to this effect on the Tunisia and the Am I? testimonial pages). Canaanite Phoenicians pre-date the Arabs, anyway. For a resounding answer "No; we are not Arabs!" follow the link.


Afrocentrism is not without blame in smothering Phoenician contribution to the ancient world. Many historians and archaeologists of that persuasion claim that the Phoenicians Canaanites themselves were sub-Saharan African based on unscientific Biblical myths or some unfounded claims. They claim that the Canaanites were Hamites or associate the Punic with native aboriginal North Africans, while the latter and/or Berber are not even sub-Saharan blacks. They, therefore, deny the Canaanites their rightful place in history. Phoenicians of the Eastern Mediterranean or the Western Mediterranean (such as famous Hannibal or the Phoenicians of Carthage, Spain, Portugal, Sicily ...etc.), the Punic, were Semitic speaking Mediterraneans.*
This statement does not negate the theory that all humans first evolved in Africa and thereafter populated the world (Migration).


Repeated note: Comments or correspondence regarding all the above points are regretfully not open for discussion. Abuse of open dialogue has made this measure & reactionary (to your correspondence) proclamations necessary.
All other comments are welcome.

What's New in Phoenicia

Why did Jesus visit Tyre and the Blessed Virgin Mary's priestly lineage (Christ visits king of Tyre and Blessed Mary's priestly lineage - link)

Phoenician Punic Translation of the Bible (Punic Bible - link)

Oldest Hebrew and Samaritan Script and Language were nothing but Phoenician (Old Hebrew is Phoenician - link)

Study on skeletal remains in Cadiz proves their Phoenician origin (Phoenicians of Cadiz - link)

Cadmus Slays The Serpent (Cadmus and the Serpent - links)

Rediscovering Ancient Phoenicia: The Truth Behind Phoenician Identity in the Mediterranean (Rediscovering - links)

Journey to the Mythological Inferno and Chavín's Labyrinth and the Palace of Hades and Persephone (News Release & Articles - links)

The Abdallah Zakhir Museum, maker of the first Arabic press in the Middle East. (Zakhir link - update)

The Sabaeans had an advanced culture of their own and were not Arabs. (Sabaeans link - update)

Phoenician Commerce (Commerce link)

Itureans were not Arabs, and Biblical Myths impact history (Itureans link)

Phoenician from the Ashes excavations in South Lebanon (Ashes link)

UPDATE: Proving History Through Science -- National Geographic studies Phoenician DNA in Lebanon & Phoenician settlements with interview with Dr. Pierre Zalloua from YouTube (National Geographic link)

Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch Union Conception (Orthodox Antioch link) Greek Melkite Patriarchate of Antioch (Greek Melkite link)

Byzantine Emperor who was one of us (Leo III link)

History of the early chuch (Church of Phoenicia & Antioch link)

Crusader & Arab DNA among the Lebanese?(Living Phoenicians link) & The Lebanese- Phoenicians are from Lebanon- Phoenicia (Lebanese Phoenicians link)

Byblos priests' snake spells to protect pharaoh's mummy, oldest Semitic text of 3,000 BC (Snake Spells)

Origin of the Arts and Philosophy were non-Greeks (non-Greek Origins)

Phoenician Music and Hymn to the Moon Goddess Nikhal Interpreted from Cuneiform Tablets (Music)

The Carthaginians Did Not Sacrifice Children: Excavations in Zama {Child Sacrifice)

The Amazigh (Berber), their language and alphabet (Berber)

Miraculous Icon of Berytus (Beirut) and the Statue of Christ in Caesarea (Berytus Icon)

Zachariah of Mitylene, Syriac Chronicle, major anti-Chalcedonian source (Syriac Chronicle) & Writings of the Syriac Church Fathers by Mar Abd Yeshua A.D. 1298. (Syriac Writers link) &History of the Christian Syriac Schools of Theology -- the Syriac Christian learning environment (Syriac Schools link)

"Aramaic of Jesus & Phoenician influence on Ancient Hebrew (Aramaic of Jesus link)

Plato's Atlantis and The Kings of Atlantis, Gods of the Phoenicians (Plato link)

Palestinian Christians: plight of the original Christians of the Holy Land. (Palestine Christians link)

The Phoenicians and Their Origins migration of the human race out of Africa (Migration link)

The Falsehood of Pan-Arabism (Pan-Arabism link)

Assemani, Maronite Light from the East for the Church and the World -- (Assemani link)

The Amorites and the Canaanite Phoenicians were not the same people. -- (Amorites link)

The concept of time -- Secret Works of the Phoenicians (Time link) & Phoenician Theology the oldest archive of the Western World (Theology link). The God-Idea of the Phoenicians (Theogony link)

Translation of the Gospel of Saint John into Lebanese -- project to translate the whole Bible into Lebanese (Gospel of John link)

The difference between the Arabic Language and the Lebanese language, the importance of distinguishing (Lebanese Language link)

Chart of the Syro-Phoenician Church from 525 A.D. till 1724, Eastern Christian Milestones (Christian Milestones link)

Origin of the Phoenician Empire -- Accurately Dating Phoenician History, presented at the Annual Conference of World History Association (Chronology link)

In Honorem: Deacon Abdalla Zakhir, the first Arabic script press (Arab Press or Zakhir link)

What was Historical Syria and Phoenicia? Is there confusion? (Syria link)

Did the Phoenicians Introduce the Idea of Interest to Greece & Italy; if so When? (Debt-Interest link); & "City-specific coins" coinage (Money link)

Elissar, Dido, Queen of Carthage and her “shining city” (Elissar link); & Jezebel, Phoenician Queen of Israel. (Jezebel link

"In Perpetuum Honorum" to Emir (Prince) Maurice Chehab for saving treasures of the Lebanese National Museum. (Honorum link)

Hall of Maps and Marinus of Tyre, Mathematical Cartographer (Maps or Marinus links)


Site Alphabetic Tree and Index

Website Index with Page Titles

Phoenicians Left Deep Genetic Mark, report in the New York Times, DNA Legacy  report on BBC. One in 17 men living today on the coasts of North Africa and southern Europe have Phoenician ancestor & BBC's proto-Phoenician script.
DNA tests of both Lebanese Muslims and Christians support that [both] populations share an ancient genetic (Phoenician) heritage.
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Middle Eastern people are not all "Arabs," as most people think.
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Salim Khalaf in Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Cyrillic (Bulgarian & Russian), Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, Ugaritic, Aramaic, Phoenician, and Latin.

The material in this site was researched,compiled, and designed by
Salim George Khalaf, NC, USA
Use of materials from this site is not allowed without written permission from the author and must hyperlink back to https://phoenicia.org
Note: Left is my name written in Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Cyrillic (Bulgarian & Russian), Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, Ugaritic, Aramaic, Phoenician, and Latin.
(Click on the image to view a larger version)

DATE (Christian and Phoenician): ,
year 4758 after the foundation of Tyre

Contact: Salim George Khalaf, Byzantine Phoenician Descendent
Salim is from Shalim, Phoenician god of dusk, whose place was Urushalim/Jerusalem
"A Bequest Unearthed, Phoenicia" — Encyclopedia Phoeniciana

This site has been online for more than 21 years.
We have more than 461 pages and over more than 420,000 words, with 10,000 incoming links
The equivalent of this website is about 2,000 printed pages.