Encyclopaedia Phoeniciana -- A Bequest Unearthed, Phoenicia

A Bequest Unearthed, Phoenicia, Encyclopedia Phoenician Logo

World's largest web compilation of Phoenician resources & studies -- Equivalent to 2,000 printed pages

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Mission Statement

To expand this anthology and encyclopedic reference about Canaan/ Phoenicia and its people. (PleaseFORVM Award For Classical Studies see Introduction: Summary).

Note: Phoenicians, Canaanites & Punic/ Carthaginians are the same people: Eastern Canaanites called Phoenicians by the Greeks & Western Canaanites called Punic by the Romans. Both referred to themselves as Canaanite.

Approach to History

In writing this history, I tried to be open to new and controversial subjects. In some instances; hence, Awards and Recommendationssome sections may contradict others in the same site. Yet, I would not tolerate blatant, outrageous claims. I categorically affirm that I have  NO political, religious or ethnic agenda that promotes or dissemination information about my Phoenician Canaanite ancestors. Suggestions of nationalism, fanaticism or political propaganda are emphatically rejected. 

The history covers the original Canaanite Phoenicians. Also, it covers the various ethnic groups who intermarried with them, over thousands of years. The main stock of these people is Canaanite Phoenician, which has been scientifically proven by recent studies. They also include others who assimilated by choice or invasion. Therefore, the Philistines, Assyrians, Macedonians, Mesopotamian, Persian, Greeks, Romans, Syriacs, Byzantines...etc. that settled in Canaan/Phoenicia or its colonies and called them their homes are included in this scope. The site is not meant to be nationalistic but attempts to identify the said people's contribution to the ancient and modern world. 

Phoenicia Died Out Misinformation

Many ignorant historians claim that Phoenicia ceased to exist in 64 B.C.  That "happened" when it became part of the Roman world. But, in 425 A.D. official Roman records show the division of Phoenicia Prima into two provinces: Phoenicia Maritima and Phoenicia Libanensis. In the early Byzantine times, the Count of Phoenicia governed Phoenicia. In 380 A.D., Saint Jerome wrote: 'Damnatur Origenes a Demetrio episeopo exceptis Palaestinae...et Phoenicis atque Achaiae sacerdotibus' since 231 A.D.  This means that he considered Phoenicia as a separate entity. 

At the council of Nicaea in 325 A.D., eleven bishops were present from Phoenicia. They were the bishops of Tyre, Damascus, Sidon, Tripolis, Paneas, Berytus, Palmyra, Ptolemais, Alasus, Emesa, and Antaradus. Saint Augustine (400 AD) witnesses to the same account of Saint Jerome. The Church Councils of Tyre (449 & 515 AD), do the same, as well. And last but not least, the Fall of Phoenicia to the Arabs (640 AD), testify to the continued existence of Phoenicia, in the seventh century. Finally, Church tradition of naming the major bishops of Phoenicia, honorary, living title of 'Metropolitan Archbishop of Phoenicia Maritima.' Lebanese bishops continue to carry this title today (see page with translation -- MP3 Byzantine psaltica chants: Bishop of Beirut & Bishop of Tripoli) are a few of many solid proofs that Phoenicia and its people live on despite the misinformation. 

Religious Books & Historical Fiction

There is some history in the Bible, Torah, and other religious writings. Using any of these books for historical research and discussions is unacceptable. I am a Melkite Greek Christian and do respect the Bible as a book of faith, not a book of history. Holy books and their mythological stories are unreliable historical sources. Yet, limited historical outlines from the Bible may be referenced, in very limited terms. I reject "proofs" of historical or genealogical significance based on religious books. If you don't like my statement, leave this site immediately. Heretical Fundamentalist (Evangelicals) Christians, conservative Jews or radical Muslims, must consider themselves warned. They will be severely dealt with if they badger me with their impudent e-mails. In short, you may not question my opinion on didactic, not a literal interpretation of holy books. 

The Semites -- A name invented in the 1700's

Bible fanatics continue to shamefully write to me on the Phoenicians. They claim the Canaanite Phoenicians were "cursed" by God. Their silly reason is they are descendent of Shem (Sam, son of Noah), using the Bible as supporting "evidence." This claim is completely unfounded. There is no archaeological proof that Noah existed. His flood story stolen from the Epic of Gilgamesh is a travesty. Too many people, use the noun Semite, as if a race with this name existed. The term Semites refers to a group of people who inhabited the Levant and spoke similar languages. They were not of the same ethnic, genetical or cultural group. They were Arabs, Israelis, Phoenicians, Aramaeans, Syriac...etc. Many use the expression based on the unfounded, mythical Biblical table of nations. I mean the descendants of the fictional character Noah and his sons, Shem, Ham or Japheth. The term Semite does not have any historical origin. It came into use at the end of the 18th century* and thereafter became a standard technical term. The name Semite used without denoting true ethnicity, but speakers of similar languages. The same applies to Hamites & Japhethites. Common mistakes in history happen all the time. Today, too many combine all the peoples of the Middle East into one pan-Arab group. 
* The term Semite was proposed at first for the languages related to the Hebrew by Ludwig Schlözer, in Eichhorn's 'Repertorium', vol. VIII (Leipzig, 1781), p. 161. Through Eichhorn the name then came into general usage (cf. his 'Einleitung in das Alte Testament' (Leipzig, 1787), I, p. 45. In his 'Gesch. der neuen Sprachenkunde', pt. I (Göttingen, 1807) it had already become a fixed technical term. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII

I Accuse Eurocentrics, Judeocentrics, Arabists & Evangelical Fundamentalist for Stifling Phoenician History

It became clear, during my research, that various ideologies affected Phoenician history. Historians and archaeologists were quick to credit Europeans or Jews for Phoenician achievements. Hellenistic supremacist thought the Greeks had exclusive access to knowledge. They ignored the Phoenician connection and credited the Greeks, Romans or Israelites.

Comments or correspondence about these points are not open for discussion. ABUSE of open dialogue has made this measure necessary. All other subjects are, of course, open for discussions.

Canaanite Phoenicians are not Arabs, Israelis, or sub-Saharan (black) Africans. They originated in Phoenicia 10,000 years ago and did not immigrant from Arabia or any other place.

Canaanite Phoenicians are not Arabs, Israelis, or sub-Saharan (black) Africans. They originated in Phoenicia 10,000 years ago and did not immigrant from Arabia or any other place. Genetic, scientific studies prove this beyond the shadow of a doubt.couple

Minimalists/nihilists reject the five books of Moses. They suggest someone wrote them in the seventh century B.C.   Somehow, they claim that the Israelites were actually Canaanites themselves. This confuses Phoenician Canaanite history with Israeli history (see the page entitled 'Stealing'). The same is further confounded by Evangelicals, British Israelists and the fishy story of the tribe of Dan. It is the so-called lost tribe of Israel and considered Phoenician. Also, what precedes is further confused by fiction taught by the Latter Day Saints (LDS) church, the Mormons.

Roman Bad Press, Antagonistic Bible Writers and Fanatics

Also, anti-Phoenician sentiments were the result of bad press by Roman historians.  This appeared after the Punic Wars and the defeat of Carthage. Further, antagonistic writers of the Bible expressed their hatred of the Phoenician religion. Please see examples in the story of Jezebel, Elijah, and others. Phoenician Queen Jezebel of Israel (a Phoenician Princess) brought her pagan religion to Israel. Fundamentalists obsessed with the literal interpretation of their religious books made matters worse. Finally, the political fanaticism of others with various agendas clouds the truth even further.

Arabists' Antagonism

Many groups of various religious backgrounds from countries, in Lebanon and the Levant, Pan-Arabists or fanatical pan-Islamists, cannot tolerate the mention of the Phoenicians.  They refuse to hear about them or their descendants in the modern world.  They assume such a mention has political and religious overtones.  The same people carry Canaanite Phoenician DNA.  Phoenician does not mean Maronite Christian.  It is something which nobody claims but which Arabists assume. Further, there is no reason for them, who suffer from this Phoenician Inferiority Complex, to deny their heritage. Such people have no shame and are fools to ignore their great heritage.  At the same time, many Lebanese, Syrians, and Western Mediterraneans (North African Muslim Arabs), including Europeans, do not share this opinion.  These groups accept Phoenician as their heritage and ancestry.  Also, they are proud of this heritage. Please see: Testimonial Page on 'Tunisia' and the 'Am I?'.  Regardless, Canaanite Phoenicians pre-date the Arabs by thousands of years. Finally, for a resounding answer 'No; we are not Arab', follow the link.


Afrocentrism is not without blame in smothering Phoenician contribution to the world.   Many fools claim that the Phoenician Canaanites themselves were sub-Saharan African i.e. black.  This is based on unscientific Biblical myths and some unfounded claims. They claim that the Canaanites were Hamites, based on Ham, the son of Noah.   Alsothey claim the Punic were native, aboriginal North Africans blacks.  In fact, North Africans are mostly Amazigh/Berber whose DNA tests prove they are Eurasian. This denies Canaanite Phoenicians their rightful place in history. Hannibal and other famous Punics from Carthage, Spain, Portugal, Sicily...etc., are the people in question.   Phoenician/Amazigh Saint Augustine testifies Canaanite is "our own tongue.

The statement does not negate science.
 Humans evolved in Africa and thereafter walked out and populated the world.  See: Migration.


Repeated notice:  Comments about all the above points are NOT open to discussion. Abuse of open dialogue has made this measure necessary.  So, make your proclamations elsewhere. I am not interested. 

All other comments are welcome.


A study reveals the Lebanese DNA of the Phoenicians of Ibiza, Spain. (Ibizans were more Lebanese than the Lebanese themselves - link)

Why did Jesus visit Tyre and the Blessed Virgin Mary's priestly lineage (Christ visits king of Tyre and Blessed Mary's priestly lineage - link)

Phoenician Punic Translation of the Bible (Punic Bible - link)

Oldest Hebrew and Samaritan Script and Language were nothing but Phoenician (Old Hebrew is Phoenician - link)

Study on skeletal remains in Cadiz proves their Phoenician origin (Phoenicians of Cadiz - link)

Cadmus Slays The Serpent (Cadmus and the Serpent - links)

Rediscovering Ancient Phoenicia: The Truth Behind Phoenician Identity in the Mediterranean (Rediscovering - links)

Journey to the Mythological Inferno and Chavín's Labyrinth and the Palace of Hades and Persephone (News Release & Articles - links)

The Abdallah Zakhir Museum, maker of the first Arabic press in the Middle East. (Zakhir link - update)

The Sabaeans had an advanced culture of their own and were not Arabs. (Sabaeans link - update)

Phoenician Commerce (Commerce link)

Itureans were not Arabs, and Biblical Myths impact history (Itureans link)

Phoenician from the Ashes excavations in South Lebanon (Ashes link)

UPDATE: Proving History Through Science -- National Geographic studies Phoenician DNA in Lebanon & Phoenician settlements with interview with Dr. Pierre Zalloua from YouTube (National Geographic link)

Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch Union Conception (Orthodox Antioch link) Greek Melkite Patriarchate of Antioch (Greek Melkite link)

Byzantine Emperor who was one of us (Leo III link)

History of the early chuch (Church of Phoenicia & Antioch link)

Crusader & Arab DNA among the Lebanese?(Living Phoenicians link) & The Lebanese- Phoenicians are from Lebanon- Phoenicia (Lebanese Phoenicians link)

Byblos priests' snake spells to protect pharaoh's mummy, oldest Semitic text of 3,000 BC (Snake Spells)

Origin of the Arts and Philosophy were non-Greeks (non-Greek Origins)

Phoenician Music and Hymn to the Moon Goddess Nikhal Interpreted from Cuneiform Tablets (Music)

The Carthaginians Did Not Sacrifice Children: Excavations in Zama {Child Sacrifice)

The Amazigh (Berber), their language and alphabet (Berber)

Miraculous Icon of Berytus (Beirut) and the Statue of Christ in Caesarea (Berytus Icon)

Zachariah of Mitylene, Syriac Chronicle, major anti-Chalcedonian source (Syriac Chronicle) & Writings of the Syriac Church Fathers by Mar Abd Yeshua A.D. 1298. (Syriac Writers link) &History of the Christian Syriac Schools of Theology -- the Syriac Christian learning environment (Syriac Schools link)

"Aramaic of Jesus & Phoenician influence on Ancient Hebrew (Aramaic of Jesus link)

Plato's Atlantis and The Kings of Atlantis, Gods of the Phoenicians (Plato link)

Palestinian Christians: plight of the original Christians of the Holy Land. (Palestine Christians link)

The Phoenicians and Their Origins migration of the human race out of Africa (Migration link)

The Falsehood of Pan-Arabism (Pan-Arabism link)

Assemani, Maronite Light from the East for the Church and the World -- (Assemani link)

The Amorites and the Canaanite Phoenicians were not the same people. -- (Amorites link)

The concept of time -- Secret Works of the Phoenicians (Time link) & Phoenician Theology the oldest archive of the Western World (Theology link). The God-Idea of the Phoenicians (Theogony link)

Translation of the Gospel of Saint John into Lebanese -- project to translate the whole Bible into Lebanese (Gospel of John link)

The difference between the Arabic Language and the Lebanese language, the importance of distinguishing (Lebanese Language link)

Chart of the Syro-Phoenician Church from 525 A.D. till 1724, Eastern Christian Milestones (Christian Milestones link)

Origin of the Phoenician Empire -- Accurately Dating Phoenician History, presented at the Annual Conference of World History Association (Chronology link)

In Honorem: Deacon Abdalla Zakhir, the first Arabic script press (Arab Press or Zakhir link)

What was Historical Syria and Phoenicia? Is there confusion? (Syria link)

Did the Phoenicians Introduce the Idea of Interest to Greece & Italy; if so When? (Debt-Interest link); & "City-specific coins" coinage (Money link)

Elissar, Dido, Queen of Carthage and her “shining city” (Elissar link); & Jezebel, Phoenician Queen of Israel. (Jezebel link

"In Perpetuum Honorum" to Emir (Prince) Maurice Chehab for saving treasures of the Lebanese National Museum. (Honorum link)

Hall of Maps and Marinus of Tyre, Mathematical Cartographer (Maps or Marinus links)

In the News

Phoenicians Left Deep Genetic Mark, report in the New York Times, DNA Legacy  report on the BBC. One in 17 men living today, on the coasts of the Mediterranean carry Phoenician DNA.

See: BBC's proto-Phoenician script.DNA tests of both Lebanese Muslims and Christians support that [both] populations share an ancient genetic (Phoenician) heritage.

Phoenician News
The Lebanese biologist, Pierre Zalloua, after examining the DNA of the Ibizan Phoenicians concluded that the Ibizans were more Lebanese than the Lebanese themselves, i.e. more European genomes were found in the Lebanese samples than in the Ibizan ones. The biologist posited the possible cause of the discrepancy as more frequent migrations than previously imagined. An article in English is being prepared from the Spanish original.

Middle Eastern people are not all "Arabs," as most people think.

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Phoenician Encyclopedia -- Phoenicia, A Bequest Unearthed (Desktop Version)

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Salim Khalaf in Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Cyrillic (Bulgarian & Russian), Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, Ugaritic, Aramaic, Phoenician, and Latin.

The material in this site was researched,compiled, and designed by Salim George Khalaf, NC, USA
Use of materials from this site is not allowed without written permission from the author and must hyperlink back to https://phoenicia.org
Note: Left is my name written in Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Cyrillic (Bulgarian & Russian), Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, Ugaritic, Aramaic, Phoenician, and Latin.
(Click on the image to view a larger version)

DATE (Christian and Phoenician): ,
year 4758 after the foundation of Tyre

Contact: Salim George Khalaf, Byzantine Phoenician Descendent
Salim is from Shalim, Phoenician god of dusk, whose place was Urushalim/Jerusalem
"A Bequest Unearthed, Phoenicia" — Encyclopedia Phoeniciana

This site has been online for more than 22 years.
We have more than 420,000 words.
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