The Phoenicians and the Celts Founded Genoa in Italy
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Revised version

The ancient name of Genoa comes from the word "knee" (Genua) or the gate to the sea or "jaw", the mouth to the sea. It was founded around 2,000 B.C. by the Phoenicians who sailed in from Tyre in Phoenicia. They came through from their settlement in Corsica and settled in Genoa with the Pagu or Tribe of Ambrones, one of the earliest ancestors of the Celts from Iberia. There is archaeological evidence in Chiavari of chariot-grave -- the "inverted bell cup" culture -- that proves this lineage. They had dominion over the Province of Padany and the area between the Eridanu River (now Po River) and Etrury. The Romans called them Ligures from the Latin verb "to settle behind."

The community of Phoenicians and Ambrones inhabitants of Genoa became pirates of the Mediterranean and were called Thyrrenoi by the Greeks. Further, they were employed as mercenaries. This is mentioned in the legend of Hercules when he returned from the mythical pillars (Gibraltar or the Pillars of Hercules) and was stopped by two sons of the Sea God, Poseidon, Albiones and Ligures.

Protected and closed in by the Alps to the north, the settlers found the only and natural way out through the Ligurian Sea; hence, it became of vital importance to them.

The Pheonicio-Celtic settlers, or the Ligures, worshipped the god Belanu. The name comes from Bel in Celtic which means light [or from Ba'al or God in Phoenician]. There is also a suggestion that the name comes from the name of a mythical king of Tyre called Belu. Further, this god is said to have protected them from the Gryphon, a mythological beast and an archaic Mesopotamian symbol. They cremated their dead heroes and used human sacrifice in their worship every year in the month of May. They used animal names to call each other such as "Arthu" (bear), Bennu (crow), Moccu (wild bore) or Hirpu (wolf).

The Ligures were divided in three social classes, the Druids or Priests, the Military equipped with chariots, bows, spears, shields and mystical necklaces, and the Working class. A king ruled them all.

The main produce of the Ligures was the cultivation and production of olives and olive oil. It was thence exported all over the Mediterranean and the then known world.

There are reports of their megalithic monuments that date back to 1,500 BC and illegible inscription, now preserved at the Bocconi private collection. The first report of their readable phrases goes back to 800 B.C. with vertical Indo-European wedge characters preserved at the Archaeological Museum of Genoa. Of the legible text the word "Mezunemusu" or central sanctuary is identified. The word comes from Nemusu or sacred wood, the sanctuary of the Celtic tribes.

In the 8th century B.C., Pheonicio-Celts of Genoa co-founded Massalia or Marseilles with more Phoenicians. In 620 B.C. they became partners in world trade of the Classical age through Marseilles where new Phoenician merchants ships and immigrants occupied Marseilles as a trading post in the area.

Around 500 B.C., they colonized the city of Lunis and the island of Elba, as a trading post for the Etruscans.

In 390 B.C., aided by other Celtic tribes they defeated the Romans in the city of Clusium lead by Brennu (catu Clusiu or battle of Clusium) and in 387 B.C. they raided Rome.

In 264 B.C. they formed an alliance with Carthage and later on had a treaty with Rome entitled "Foedus Aequum".

In the first Punic War, Carthage took 8,000 Pheonicio-Celts from Genoa as mercenaries while Rome captured 60 of their ships.

In 225 B.C., they had their first conflict with the Romans at the battle of Talamona.

In the summer of 218 B.C., they sided with Carthaginian Hannibal against the Romans and provided 4,000 men to his army.

Plutarch reported that in 102 B.C. Genoa fell to the Romans at the battle of Aquae Sextiae and it was called thereafter, the Province of Gallia Cisalpinis (inside-Alphs Gaul).

In 53 B.C. the Genoese tried to rebel against Rome but they were defeated in 51 B.C.

Emperor Octavian Augustus made Genoa his hometown around 18 B.C.

In 6 A.D., Genoa became the capital of the 9th king of Rome.

Thereafter, the 350 years of Roman domination Genoa suffered from oppression, linguistic substitution and slavery especially under Julius Caesar in 15 B.C.

Around 300 A.D., Genoa became a Christian city. There is archaeological evidence that proves this when Jacopo de Voragine identified the relics of St. Syrus. St. Syrus (324 A.D. - 381 A.D.) was the one of the earliest bishops of Genoa. It needs to be mentioned that in 58 A.D., saints Nazrius and Celsus had failed to convert the population to Christianity.


Note: The author of this site reproduced the not copyrighted History of Genoa without permission from the writer. Further, the Revised Version was also produced without the writer's persmission and is presented to help the reader.



Original version

Anciently named Genua ="knee" as the sea shores shape or ="door" gate to the sea or ="jaw" mouth to the sea , was founded probably around 2'000 b.c. by "Sea People", the Fenix ( Or called "Phoenicians"one of the first civilization of mankind-history.) who sailed into the most comfortable bay of that site, from Tyrus (now in Lebanon) thru' Corsic and settle themselves upon a substrate of the Celtic "Pagu"(=Tribe) of Ambrones, the most ancient Celtic stock with Iberis, (Occidental-Hallstattian Kelti) of the "upset-bell cup" culture as prove the reports found in a chariot-grave in Chiavari, whose dominion was from Provence to Padany and from the river "Eridanu"(now "Po" river) to Etrury, they were called later by latins the "Ligures" (from latin verb "to be settled behind").

Fenix and Ambrones mixed together and they begun to course the mediterranean sea as pirates and so known as Thyrrenoi ("pirates") by Greek people, as they also used to be mercenaries. This fact is emphatized in greek legends on Hercules, who, when was back from the mythical "Columns", was stopped in Ligury by two sons of Poseidon (the Sea God) called Albiones and Ligures....

Protected and closed by Marine Alps to the north, the natural way out, the Ligurian sea, became more and more important for Ligures.

Ligures had the cult of god "Belanu" (from celtic "Bel"="light" or from "Belu" mythic king of Tyrus), were protected by the mythological beast "Gryphon"(the griffin), a very archaic Mesopotamic symbol brought by Fenix people; dedicated to cremation of dead heroes,they used human sacrifices every year in the month of may. They used animals names to call themselves, like "Arthu" =the bear, "Brennu"=the crow, "Moccu"=the wild boar or "Hirpu"=the wolf.

Led by a "Rix" (=King), Ligures were divided up in three castes: the "Druvid"(Priests), the Militia equipped with "carru"(=chariots) "bug"(=bow) spear shield and "torque"(a mystical necklace), and the Productive caste.

The main products of cultivation were Olives (scientifical name "Olea Ligustica") and Olive Oil, which were born first in Ligury and then exported with Genoeses sailors in all the mediterranean area and then in the whole world.

From around 1'500 b.c. are reports of menhirs with human head and illegible scriptures, conserved in the Bocconi private collection.The first report of readable phrases goes back up to 800 b.c. with a vertical hindoeuropean wedge-shaped character set scripture report conserved in the civic museum of archaelogy in Genoa, in which is the word "Mezunemusu" ="Central Sanctuary" ("nemusu"="sacred wood" as was called a sanctuary by Celtic tribes).

Around VIII century b.c. Ligures founded the city of Massalia" (=Marseille). Then in 620b.c.Ligures got contact with the Classic World trading in that city of Massalia, where Phocaean galleys landed to put a trading post of the Ellenic Empire.

Around 500 b.c., Ligures colonized the city of Lunis and the isle of Elba as a point of trading with the Etruscan culture.

In the year 390 b.c. Ligures and other Celtic tribes led by 'Brennu' defeat Romans in the city of Clusium ("catu Clusiu"=battle of Clusium), and in 387 b.c. they raid and destroy Rome.

In 264 b.c. Ligures form an alliance with Carthago (another city founded by Fenix) and with Rome (the treaty called "Foedus Aequum").

In the first Punic War, Carthago took 8.000 Genoeses mercenaries and in the same time Rome recruited 60 Genoeses ships.

In 225 b.c. Ligures and Romans begun their direct conflict with the battle of "Talamona".

In the summer of 218 b.c. Ligures took part in the Punic War supporting the Carthaginese "Annibales" with 4.000 men.

In 102 b.c. Genoa falled in the hands of Romans as province called "Gallia Cisalpinis"(="inside-Alps Gauls"), after the battle of Aquae Sextiae as reported by Plutarcus in "Marius'Life", led by a Roman "praefectus juri dicundo".

In 53 b.c. Genoeses tried to rebel against Rome but Latins defeat them in 51 b.c..

The Roman Imperator Octavianus Augustus took Genoa as his hometown for some years (around 18 b.c.).

In 6 a.d., Genoa became the capital of the "IX regio" of Rome.

During this period of 350 years of dominaton, revenges and slavery (expecially under Julius Caesar and in 15 b.c. with the constitution of the Roman Empire), Ligures suffered a linguistic substitution.

Around 300 a.d. Genoa became christian as proven when Jacopo de Voragine identified the relics of St. Syrus, one of the earliest bishops of Genoa (b.324-d.381). Before (58 a.d.) the saints Nazarius and Celsus came to Genoa but they don't succeeded in the conversion.

In 401 a.d. with the gradual fall of Romans and the raids of Gothic people, Genoa became independent inbetween this period of anarchy and, in these years, they begun the navigation beyond the Hercules'columns or "Gebel Tariq" (=" Tariq Mountain", now called "Gibilterra" or "Gibraltar"), another city founded by Fenix, formerly named "Calpe".

Genoa suffered raids from Alaricus (402), Rodagisus (406), Attila (452) and Visigoth People (458).

In 493 Genoa became part of the Ostrogoth kingdom but continued to course the seas boarding and raiding against the Vandals pirates.

In 538 Byzantium gave 1.000 soldiers from Tracia to Genoa.

In 569 with the Longobard invasion of the king Alboinus, Genoa became independent and became the lonley stronghold of north italy, even if King Rotarius raid the city a couple of times....

Genoa was led by a "vir magnificus"(= great man) with an "exercitus"(=army) composed by 400 men from each district.

At this point gradually,with the help of the Count-Bishop of Genoa, the city exclude itself from the feudal empire system of Carolus Magnus and found formally its own domain, with a kingdom from Nice (now in France) to Luni (now in Tuscany).

First Genoa was controlled by two groups of Consules (=leaders), a Parliament and five delegates for various tasks, then the Republic of Genoa was controlled by the "Duxe" (from Latin "dux" = chief) later called "Doge", who was elected by the ancient families beetween 90 candidates and a second ballot between 5 winners (from this the birth of lottery game).

The Saracen fatimit califf Abû al Qâsim Muhammad in 935 made a raid, with 200 ships, in Genoa raping 1.000 women but after, between 1060 and 1080, Genoa made a treaty with the Saracen people Hammadids and Zirytes, and in Genoa was founded the first embark station to the Holyland.

In this period to trick the laws of Popes against the loans, they made up the first bank ("Bancô de San Giorgio"=Saint-Georges Bank) as proves the first evidence in the world of financial services and bills of exchange, wich was a contract issued in Genoa in 1156 to enable two brothers who had borrowed 115 Genoese pounds to reimburse the bank's agents in Constantinople by paying them 460 Bizants one month after their arrival; Genoeses also invented the first insurance system, to improve trading and commerce, the Genoese true religion they had zealously followed for many a long year: the religion of gold and trade. Legend and local jokes have it that the priests sermons fell on granite ears and interest was only sparked when they gave an assurance that God didn't guarantee 1% but a 100 to 1 win. One unsavory reminder of the importance attached to "brass" is Genoa's equivalent of Newgate, the Malapaga debtors' prison. Though this hell-hole was closed down in 1850, its memory still lingers in the name on the wharf near 'ciassa Cavour'..

Along the marine routes, Genoeses sailors collect and develop many innovations in navigation, as the Compass (before used as a game), the Sextant (before a rude pendulum), newer Sails and Rudders (almost the same used today), the knowledge of Night-navigation (from Arabic astronomy), modern Carthography (from Arabic mathematics) and the knowledge of the earth's spheric-shape. The oldest sea charts in existence, linked to the emergence of the compass, are of Genoese origin. the earliest examples date from the late thirteenth century. They generally show the Mediterranean basin (" Mare nostrum " ) drafted with astonishing cartographic precision, considering the technical means available to the mapmakers of that time. A well known Genoese chart is one of 1544 by Battista Agnese.

The Genoeses ships:"Garabo","Galera","Gatto","Goletta","Salandra","Buco","Uscere" and "Cursore", and their crew were the fastest, more powerfull and easy-to-handle ships, so far that the city changed name into "A Superba" ("The Superb").

The Genoese expanding method often was not of conquering but of founding commercial colonies into a foreign city building a private harbour with customs duty, a "darsena"(from arabic "daar seenah" the place where to build ships), a Genoese district with shops and houses, churches, and then slowly taking financially and politically possession of the whole town. That's why with this financial method the dominion of Genoa lasted longer than a one taken by force with struggles.

Around 1000 a.d. Genoa took almost every Aegean island and city: from Rodhis to Smirnes and Samos.

Despite pressure from Arab and pirate raids, the Byzantine state succeeded in keeping open the Aegean sea lanes until the 11th century; however, this control was gradually eroded by the constant granting of concessions to Genoa, the ultimate naval power, concessions which allowed Genoeses to open commercial stations on the empires littoral cities. The Fourth Crusade and the destruction of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204 resulted in a new distribution of power in the Aegean. The great islands like Chios, Mytilene and others, passed into the control of the Genoeses. "Costantinopolis" was taken by Genoa, in wich was erected a tower called "Galata", on the hill of "golden-horn" of Istambul, to control the city.

In 1087 colonized in north Africa the cities of Tunis, Jerbah, Mahedia and Tripolis.

In 1098 Ligures organized the expedition to 1st Crusade and then took part in the "Antyokias capture", acquiring many privileges. In those years the most powerful Genoese family was "Embriaci", whose members played notable roles in the Crusades in the Holy Land in the 11th and 12th centuries. Guglielmo Embriaco and his brother Primo de Castello sailed for the Holy Land in 1099 and participated in the "capture of Jerusalem" and the defeat of an Egyptian army at Ramla. Guglielmo returned to Genoa to raise fresh troops and then participated in the "capture of Arsuf", south of Jaffa (1101). The Holy Grail, thought to be carved from a single great emerald (much later found to be glass), was captured at Caesarea and sent to the cathedral of San Lorenzo in Genoa. Returning to Genoa, Guglielmo served a term as consul of the republic.From this period was "Caffaro de Caschifellone" (b. c. 1080--d. 1166), a Genoese soldier, statesman, diplomat, and crusader who wrote chronicles that are important sources for the history of the First Crusade and of 12th-century Genoa. At the siege of Acri, Richard I, fighting side by side with the brave Genoese, placed England under the patronage of the Genoese Patron Saint, George of Cappadocia. He also took from the Genoese banner its Red Cross and placed it at the centre of the national flag of Old England.

In 1015 Genoeses conquered Corsica where they made: The foundation of many towns like Bonifacio, Calvi, Bastia or Ajaccio has been accompanied with the building of citadels bristling with ramparts which protected the trading activity of these cities. On the initiative of the financiers of the Saint-Georges Bank and in front of the danger of the Barbary Coasts attacks, a system of several hundred towers situated on headlands on the coast side, was built during the 15th and 16th centuries. 'The Genoese', narrow Bridges, spanning with only a simple arch the smallest rivers that they generously overhang with their narrow silhouette, still offer their crossing on many roads or ways like the Bridge of Ota, near Porto. Is to be remembered Sambucuccio d'Alando (d. c. 1370), a corsican revolutionary, who in collaboration with Genoa, led an uprising against the feudal Cinarca family and their overlord, James (IV) of Aragon.

Around 1016/1017 Genoa took almost every coast-village in Sardinia. The city "Alghero" was founded in 1102 by the Doria family and became a Catalan colony under Peter IV of Aragon in 1354. The kingdom or "giudicato" of Cagliari was politically Genoese. It was brought to an end in 1258 when its capital, S. Igia, was stormed and destroyed by an alliance of Sardinian-Pisan forces. The territory then became a colony of Pisa 'til the war of Meloria. The kingdom or "giudicato" of Torres, too, was Genoese and came to an end in 1259, on the death of the "giudicessa" Adelasia. The territory was divided up between the Doria family of Genoa and the Bas-Serra family of Arborea, while the city of Sassari became an autonomous city-republic.

In 1184 Genoa conquered Balearian Island.

In 1190 organized the expedition to 3rd Crusade.

The date of 10th June 1215 marks the birth of the future Monaco Principality : on that day, the Genoese Ghibellines led by Fulco del Cassello, who had long since seen the strategic importance of the Rock and was aware of the advantages of the harbor, came there to lay the first stone of the Genoese fortress, on whose foundations the Prince's Palace lies today. Among the families of the Genoese aristocracy belonging to the Guelph party, one of the most brilliant was the Grimaldi family ; its most anciently known ancestor was a certain Otto Canella, 'Doge' of Genoa in 1133, whose son was called Grimaldo. It was a branch of this House of Grimaldi which was, after 3 centuries of struggle, to gain permanent possession of the sovereignty of Monaco. In 1296, as a result of party quarrels, the Guelphs and with them the Grimaldis were expelled from Genoa and took refuge in Provence. They had a small army which they used against the fortress of Monaco. On 8th January 1297, the Guelphs led by Francô Grimaldi, known as "Malizia" ("the Cunning"), seized the fortress. According to one chronicler, Francô Grimaldi penetrated the walls in the guise of a Franciscan monk. This was the first capture of Monaco by the Grimaldis ; the event is commemorated on their coat of arms where the supporters are two monks armed with swords.

In 1261 the republic conquered, colonized and founded many cities over the Black sea shores: for example the turkish Amastris and Amisos, the crimean Balaklava and Caffa (Now Feodsiya, the town fell to Russia in 1783), all the lands in the Azov sea, and many other minor sites. The Genoese pirates in Crimea put their vanguard in Tmutorokan' (now Kerch).

In 1284 Genoeses fleet destroy Pisa (another sailor's empire) in the battle of Meloria, a rocky islet in the Ligurian Sea, off the coast of Tuscany, north central Italy, opposite Livorno. Meloria is known as the site of two 13th-century naval battles, both features of the long-standing rivalry between Pisa and Genoa. In the first battle (1241) the fleets of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II and of Pisa attacked a Genoese squadron and captured the English, French, and Spanish prelates on their way to the Lateran Council summoned by Pope Gregory IX. In the second battle in August 1284 two Genoese squadrons, commanded by "Oberto Doria" and "Benedetto Zaccaria", crushingly defeated a numerically superior Pisan fleet under "Albertino Morosini", "Ugolino della Gherardesca", and "Andreotto Saraceno". After this Pisa never recovered its naval power.

Between 1253 and 1299 was the war against Venice.Genoa sweep his worst enemy on the seas, Venice; on 1264 (battle of Saseno) off Saseno, by Valona (Albania, northeast of heel, near Serbia) the Genoese under Simone Grillo captures a heavily laden Venetian Levantine fleet; on 1266 (battle of Trapani) Gilberto Dandolo, with 25 galleys, encounters a Genoese fleet under Borborino off the Northwest coast of Sicily, Borborino declines battle and they link their galleys together in defense, after three attempts, the Venetians break through and destroy most of Borborino's fleet; on 1294 (battle of Kilikian) the Genoese defeat the Venetians off the coast of Kilikian, the Venetians losing 25 of 68 ships (Northeast of the "spur"); on 1297 (battle of Curzola) Genoese challenge the Venetians off the coast of Dalmatia, at the island of Curzola (Korcula),was a decisive victory, 78 Genoeses ships versus 98 Venetians ships under Andrea Dandolo; then on 1299 entering and raiding the city, report is the "lion of Venice" conserved in San Matteo Church in Genoa. The Venetian losses were scarcely to be believed: 18 sunk galleys, 66 captured galleys, which Lamba Doria burned on the Korcula beaches because he could not tow them as far as Genoa; 7,000 soldiers, sailors and rowers killed, and 7,400 captured.

During these raids on 1298 was catched the Venetian "Marco Polo" who wrote in Genoeses jails, with "Rustichello da Pisa", his fabulous book "The Million" about his fantastic trek to China, which probably had never seen.

At this time Genoa while organized the crusades by one side, formed an alliance with the Ottoman Empire, takin all the advantages from both sides: a Genoese named "Çigä" was elected "Pasha of Sidun". The Genoese established a colony in Ceuta and in 1234 we find the Genoese joining the Arabs in the defence of Ceuta against a Spanish attack. The friendly contact with Ottoman Empire is reported in the correspondance, preserved in the State Archives of Genoa, of Battista Ferrari, 'agent' of the republic in Constantinople from 1562 to 1567, includes for the year 1564 alone detailed reports on Ottoman diplomatic activity and naval preparations from 'Mocat Aga', "Mostaffa Rais', and 'Ferrato Beij', all three converted and renamed Genoese in the sultan's service. Some of these returned to Genoa after a period in Ottoman pay....

In the 14th century Genoeses built many fortress onto the turkish shores, like the one that dominates the small port of Cesme restored and enlarged by the Ottomans in the 16th century,or the one at Sigacik, where a picturesque marina rests beneath fortifications.

In this period has to be remembered the "Boccanegra" family, wealthy Genoese family that played an important role in two great "popular"(democratic) revolutions, one in 1257 and the other in 1339, and furnished several admirals to the Genoese republic and to Spain. Also the "Spinola" family was one of the noblest families that dominated the history of Genoa during the city-state's great period, from the 12th to the 14th century.

In 1288 'Blessed Jacopo de Voragine' ( Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist) was commissioned by Pope Nicholas IV to free the Genoese from the ban of the Church, which they had incurred for assisting the Sicilians in their revolt against the King of Naples. When Genoese Archbishop Charles Bernard of Genoa died, in 1286, the metropolitan chapter of Genoa proposed Jacopo de Voragine as his successor. Upon his refusal to accept the dignity, Obizzo Fieschi, the Patriarch of Antyokias whom the Saracens had driven from the see, was transferred to the archiepiscopal See of Genoa by Nicholas IV in 1288. But when Obizzo Fieschi died, in 1292, the chapter of Genoa unanimously elected Jacopo de Voragine as his successor. His again endeavoured to evade the archiepiscopal dignity, but was finally obliged to yield to the combined prayers of the clergy, the Senate, and the people of Genoa. Has to be remembered too the "Fieschi" family, a noble Genoese family of those times, whose members played an important role in Guelf (papal party) politics in medieval Italy. The Fieschi allied with the Angevin kings of Sicily and later with the kings of France; the family produced two popes, 72 cardinals, and many generals, admirals, and ambassadors, like Pope Innocent IV, original name Sinibaldo Fieschi (b. end of 12th century, Genoa--d. Dec. 7, 1254, Naples), one of the greatest pontiffs of the Middle Ages (reigned 1243-54), whose clash with Holy Roman emperor Frederick II formed an important chapter in the conflict between papacy and empire. His belief in universal responsibility of the papacy led him to attempt the evangelization of the East and the unification of the Christian churches

In XIII and XIV century Genoeses begun the exploration of "o Mâ Oçeanu" ("the Sea Ocean") pointing their vanguard in "Lisbunn-a" ("Lisboa") and on the "Insuë de Açorre" ("Islands of Açores") and "Madeira", as reports the fact that Columbus' father-in-law, Bartholomeu Perestrello, was the governor of Porto Santo, in the Madeira Islands. So Genoeses discovered marine routes to trade in the whole known world, from "Etiopia"(so was called Africa) to "Cataï"("China") and from Cipangû("Japan") to "Mâ Nostru"("Our Sea"= Mediterranean sea).

In October of 1347 Genoese trading ships put into the harbor of Messina in Sicily with dead and dying men at the oars. The ships had come from the Black Sea port of Caffa (now Feodsiya) in the Crimea, where the Genoese maintained many trading posts. The diseased sailors showed a strange black swelling about the size of an egg or an apple in the armpits and groin. The ships then put in their home harbour in Genoa and the plague begun there in the first days of January 1348. The Black Death had begun and would not leave Europe for 400 years. Half of Europe die over the next 50 years. January 1348, the plague was in Marseilles. It reached Paris in the spring 1348 and England in September 1348. Moving along the Rhine trade routes, the plague reached Germany in 1348, and the Low Countries the same year. 1348 was the worst of the plague years. It took longer to reach the periphery of Europe. Norway was hit in May 1349. The eastern European countries were not reached until 1350, and Russia not until 1351. The plague will continue through cycles over the next 350 years.

In these years the war against Venice restarted: in 1352 Genoa defeat an alliance squadron from Venice, Aragon, and Byzantium, and in 1354, with the battle of Modon Genoese crushed Venetians in the Ionian Sea, Genoese under Paganino Doria, Venetians under Nicolo Pisani. 1379, Pulj: Genoese defeat Venetians in the Istrian Peninsula, now Croatia.Genoese fleet of 22 galleys under Luciano Doria sail up the Adriatic.Venetians under Vittorio Pisani sailed out of port, captured the Genoese flagship, killing Luciano Doria. Genoese fight back, sinking 15 of 20 Venetian galleys.Pisani retreats back to harbor. Then in 1379 (December 23) the final battle: Pietro Doria captures the Venetian port of Chioggia, then attacks the core of Venice (under the "Doge" Andrea Contarini) raiding the city but then Venetian Vittorio Pisani blockades Genoese inside the Venetian Channels. Genoeses lose most of their ships breaking out. So in 1381 they signed a peace treaty.

In 1372 King Pierre II was crowned King of Jerusalem according to custom in the cathedral of St. Nicholas. As the procession was returning from the cathedral, a dispute arose between the representatives of the republics of Genoa and Venice on a question of precedence. At the banquet after the ceremony the dispute broke out again and resulted in a fight in which several of the Genoese were killed. Genoa was not slow in taking her revenge. The Genoese fleet under Admiral Pietro de Campo Fregoso landed troops in Cyprus. Nicosia and Famagusta were taken, the boy king was made a prisoner, a crushing indemnity was imposed on the island and Famagusta was retained as security for payment.

During the middle ages the Canaries become more myth than reality. They figure for example in the search by St Brendan (a.d. c.484 - 578) for paradise, which he assumed to be an island in the Sea Ocean. Around the end of the 13th century, the Canaries were rediscovered by a Genoese fleet under Lancelot Malocello. A detailed survey was made by Nicoloso de Reccô of Genoa in 1341.

Genoeses lost Costantinople in March 1453, when the armed forces of Mohammed II, numbering 160,000, completely surrounded Constantinople, the city had only 5000 soldiers and 2000 Western knights, commanded by Giustiniani of Genoa. Notwithstanding this serious disadvantage, the city held out against the enemy for two months, but on the night of 28 May, 1453, Mohammed II ordered a general assault, and after a desperate conflict, in which Emperor Constantine XII perished, the Turks entered the city from all sides and perpetrated a frightful slaughter. Mohammed II rode over heaps of corpses to the church of St. Sophia, entered it on horseback, and turned it into a mosque.

Friday 12 October 1492 a.d. the Genoese "Christopher Columbus"(Cristofôru Côlumbô or Cristobal Colon), discovered central America and his son after 1500 discovered the most of the remaining routes to Atlantic America. Cristofôru (b.1451-d.1506) lived his youth on the other side of the mid-12th century gate of "Porta Soprana" in the ivy-covered house in Genoa and went to sea at the age of 14, as a pirate, later visiting the Greek Island of Chios. In 1476, while fighting in a battle of Genoa with the Portuguese off Cape St Vincent (Sagres, Lagos), the ship he was aboard caught fire, and he swam to the shore of Portugal with the help of a wooden oar. Then he moved on to Lisbon which had at the time a considerable community of Genoese.Lisbon was then a busy commercial centre, at the westernmost edge of the known world, and congregated there were seafarers, astronomers, geographers, and scientists, all keenly debating the possibility of the existence and discovery of a "new world', or of reaching the East by sailing west. His ambition was much aided by the wife he took in 1478. She was Felipa Perestrello, and her father was a sea captain. Then he began to seek a patron for his intended expedition. His voyage was patronized by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Castile in April 1492 getting Genoeses financial backing for part of the expenses from the Bank of St.George. On Friday 3 August, he set sail from the Spanish port of Palos in command of the Santa María - a decked ship 36 mt. long, with 50 men, and attended by two little caravels, the Pinta and the Niña , captained by Martin Alonso Pinzón and his brothers. The whole squadron comprised only 120 adventurers. He first reached the Canary Is.; and though he found it hard to keep up the courage of his crews, San Salvador in the Bahamas was sighted on Friday 12 Oct, then visited Cuba and Hispaniola (Haiti), leaving 38 men there and he set sail on 4 January 1493 back to Spain. Columbus' second voyage was altogether a more ambitious one, with a fleet of three carracks and 17 small caravels sailing from Cadiz (25 Sep 1493). After calling at the Canary Is. for supplies, they sighted Dominica in the West Indies (3 Nov 1493), going on to Guadalupe and Puerto Rico. En route, they found that the colony left on Hispaniola had been massacred. On his third voyage (1498-1500) he discovered the South American mainland, but was sent home in irons by a newly appointed royal governor after a revolt against his command. His last great voyage (1502-4) along the southern shores of Mexico was accomplished against royal orders, and in great hardship. Undoubtedly the greatest mariner of all time, died forgotten, sick in body and mind, at Valladolid, in Spain.

In 1497 the Genoese "Giovanni Caboto" discovered North America Mainland. John Cabot was born in Genoa in 1450 and moved to England in 1484. Like Columbus and Magellan, Cabot thought there was a better route to the riches of the Orient by heading west instead of east. After being turned down by the monarchs of Spain and Portugal, Cabot was granted a charter to explore by Henry VII of England. He was given one small ship less than 70 feet long called the Matthew and a crew of 18 men. The expedition set sail from Bristol, England, on [May 2, 1497]. His heading was farther north than the Columbus routes and well out of the way of Spanish-held territories. Five weeks later on June 24, his crew sighted land somewhere in Newfoundland. Even though the distance was shorter than Columbus', it took longer because the winds were not as favorable up in the north. It was the first documented landing in Newfoundland since the Viking voyages centuries before. Cabot was convinced he'd found an island off the coast of Asia and he named the island "new found land." He returned to England on August 6, 1497. Although he brought no spices or treasure back with him, he was able to map out the first details of the North American coast. King Henry approved a second voyage and financed one ship. Four other ships were financed by merchants hoping to cash in on the new route to the Orient. In May 1498, the five ships set sail. One returned for repairs and the other four, with John Cabot as captain, disappeared and never returned. John Cabot's son, Sebastian, was an accomplished mapmaker and navigator. In 1508 with King Henry VII's support, he set sail to discover western lands. He took a northern route looking for a strait to take him to the Orient. When his crew threatened mutiny, Sebastian headed back to England. He was certain he'd found a northwest passage to the East. On the way back he explored the coast of North America. He arrived in England in 1509 only to find King Henry VII had died and Henry VIII was in power. The new king was not as supportive of Cabot's exploration as his predecessor. So young Sebastian moved to Spain and secured the Spanish ruler's support to find an easier and safer strait than Magellan's. In 1526, he set sail with four ships. He spent four years sailing off the east coast of South America. He did not find a better passage around the continent and returned to Spain in 1530 in disgrace. Then he eventually returned to Genoa and lived as a mapmaker until his death in 1557.

In XVI century was built the tall lighthouse called 'Lanterna' on the site of a pre-existing lighthouse tower.

In the same century Genoeses developed the 'Bizilla' (=lace), the art of lace-making, probably introduced from the East. Modern Maltese lace (probably the best) is descended directly from Genoese lace. To quote Maltese producer(1907) : "This heavier Genoese lace was made from 1625 onwards. Its lineal descendant is modern Maltese, which was introduced into the island by laceworkers broght from Genoa in 1833.. . "

From the end of the 15th century onwards Genoese merchants came down to reside in Antwerp after the decline of Bruges (which Genoese colonized before) and formed a Nation. In 1532, the Emperor Charles V recognized the Genoese Nation in Antwerp. It became one of the most powerful trade communities. Most members were rich bankers, specializing in maritime insurance and loans, and were known for their influential role in the financial world. Together with the Augsburg Fugger family they were the most important moneylenders to the Spanish Crown in the 16th century, and were sometimes hailed as the saviours of the Spanish government. Their money was needed in the first place for the maintenance of the Spanish troops in the Netherlands. The Genoese financial contributions for the maintenance of the Spanish troops in Antwerp, made by the Nations residing in Antwerp, to the City Council, as recorded on 29 April 1574, was "XXXm ll Arthois" (=30.000 pounds Artois). Most of the Genoese traders belonged to the nobility and displayed a genuine interest in the arts and sciences. Their generous patronage undoubtedly influenced the local trade élite who were eager to adopt a touch of aristocratic prestige. The highly influential role played by the Genoese patrons on the career of young composers is a relatively unknown feature in current art and music histories. One of the most favoured artists of the Genoese Nation, was the poet Jan van der Noot Esq. Stefano Gentile and Giovanni Grimaldi, two rich Genoese bankers, revealed themselves as particularly generous patrons and considered their support of artists an effective way of displaying their wealth and prestige. In 1565 the humanist and poet Guillaume De Poetou wrote his debut, a collection of odes entitled La grande liesse en plus grand labeur and addressed to both Gentile and Grimaldi as a New Year present.

In 1565 was built the 'Palazzô Giancu'(=Withe House), remodeled in the 18th century and renovated to reflect modern museum planning after World War II damage. It was donated to the city, together with her art collection, by the Duchess of Galliera, and among the magnificent paintings to be seen are works by Van Der Goes, Van Dyck, Rubens, Zurbaran, Strozzi, Magnasco and David's "Virgin of the Pappa", as well as other masters from mediaeval times onwards. There are also exhibitions of Flemish tapestries, Genoese furniture and Chinese porcelain.

In 1721 the first count of civilians able to bear arms in Gibraltar was taken and this revealed that 45 were English, 96 were Spaniards and above 169 were Genoeses. This Genoese element supplied a vital contribution towards what was to make a Gibraltarian. By 1753 the civilian population had grown and the main elements were 597 Genoeses. Dr Howes ("study of the origins and development of the population of Gibraltar from 1704", first published in 1951) concluded from his researches that 'the basic element in what has become the Gibraltarian is the Genoeses'

After that time, Genoeses sailors continued to trade and to discover marin routes in the remainder of the world.

In Genoa, 27 October 1782 was born Niccolò Paganini (died Niça, 27 May 1840). By his technique and his extreme personal magnetism he was not only undoubtedly the greatest violin virtuoso of all time but drew attention to the significance of virtuosity as an element in art. He studied with his father, Antonio Cervetto and Giacomo Costa and composition with Ghiretti and Paer. From 1810 to 1828 he developed a career as a 'free artist' throughout Europe, mesmerizing audiences and critics with his showmanship; notable compositions were the bravura variations Le streghe (1813), the imaginative 24 Caprices op.1 and the second and third violin concertos, surpassing in brilliance any that had been written before. After conquering Vienna in 1828 he was equally successful in Germany (Goethe, Heine and Schumann admired him), Paris and London (1831-4). His hectic intemational career finally shattered his health in 1834, when he retumed to Genoa. Apart from his unparalleled technical wizardry on the instrument, including the use of left-hand pizzicato, double-stop harmonics, 'ricochet' bowings and a generally daredevil approach to performance - all of which influenced successive violinists (Ernst, Bériot, Vieuxtemps) - he is most important for his artistic impact on Liszt, Chopin, Schumann and Berlioz, who took up his technical challenge in the search for greater expression in their own works.

On June 15, 1797 the "Ligurian Republic" was created by Ligurian-Corsican born (in those years was a Genoese Province) Napoleone Buonaparte (after French nationalization called Napoleon Bonaparte), organizing the conquered city of Genoa and its environs. The government was modeled on that of the Directory in France, and the republic was tied to France by alliance. In 1803 it became also a military district, closely linked to France, and its chief of state became appointable by Napoleon. In May 1805 the Ligurian Republic was absorbed into the Napoleon French Empire for a few years.

The republic of Genoa with his language, culture and governament system persisted thousands of years, under many other kingdoms and loosing along times all the lands and privileges conquered, 'til the constitution in 1860 of the kingdom of italy, made in the name of kings of Savoy, politically by the Genoese "Giuseppe Mazzini" and military by the Ligurian "Giuseppe Garibaldi" who, starting from Genoa with a crew of only one thousand soldiers, conquered all the land now called italy, and gave all the kingdom to the king "Vittorio Emanuele" with the historical phrase "I obey". Then the Genoese "Goffredo Mameli" (b. Sept. 5, 1827, Genoa), poet and patriot of the Risorgimento, authored the Italian anthem "Fratelli d'Italia" ("Brothers of Italy").

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