(all dates BC)
- 814 Carthage
founded by Elissa (Dido), sister of the King of Tyre.
- 800? First
Phoenician presence on Sardinia.
- 770 Founding
of Gadir, gateway to Spanish silver.
Heavy Greek colonization of Sicily, Southern Italy, Southern Provence,
Andalusia and Cyrenaica, encircling Carthaginian territory.
- 654 Carthage
founds colony in the Balearic Islands at Ibiza.
- 600 Carthage
fails to prevent Phocaean Greek colony at Massilia (Marseilles).
- 580 First
attempt by Greeks to drive Phoenicians out of Sicily.
- 574 Tyre
falls to Nebuchadnezzar.
- 550 Carthage
allies with the Etruscans against the Greeks.
- 550 Carthaginian
force led by Malchus defeats Greeks in Sicily, but is vanquished in
Sardinia. Malchus banished, marches on Carthage, is caught and executed.
- 550? Carthaginian
colonies formed along coast of Africa, Algeria, Hadrumetum, Leptis.
- 539 Asian
Phoenicia falls to Cyrus the Great of Persia.
- 535 Carthage,
with Etruscans, destroys Phocaean colony in Corsica and closes Sardinia-Corsica
off to the Greeks.
- 510 Dorieus,
a Spartan prince, is expelled from Tripolitania.
- 510 Rome
throws off Etruscan rulers and establishes independent republic.
- 507 First
treaty with Rome
- 498 Hippocrates
and Theron seize control in Syracuse and attempt to throw Phoenicians
off western part of the island.
- 480 Alliance
with Persia fails to destroy Greeks, military defeat in Sicily as fleet
is cut off by superior Athenian forces (Himera). Revolution overthrows
Mago dynasty and establishes Court of 104 Magistrates.
- 480 Carthaginian
force under Hamilcar the Magonid defeated by Sicilian Greeks at Himera
cutting off access to the East. Hamilcar commits suicide on the battlefield.
Carthage conquers most of Tunisia. Colonies in North Africa founded
or strengthened. Mago's expedition across the Sahara.
- 410 Phoenicians
in Spain join with Celtiberians to secede from Carthage, denying the
state important silver and copper revenues. Overland tin trade cut off.
- 410 Himilco's
expeditions in the Atlantic. Hanno's expeditions to Morocco and Senegal.
- 409 Carthage
initiates attempts to conquer Sicily. Hannibal, grandson of Hamilcar,
takes the fortified towns of Selinus and Himera by use of siege towers.
- 405 Hannibal
Mago and hundreds of troops die in epidemic outside fortified town of
Acragas. Himilco, his relative, takes over command, is defeated by force
out of Syracuse, and has supply disrupted in naval action. Syracusan
forces strengthen garrison.
- 405 Carthaginian
squadron breaks through Greek blockade -- the besieged escape under
cover of night, Punic forces collect spoils.
- 405 Himilco
takes town of Gela, defeating Syracusan force, then takes town of Camarina.
- 405 Himilco
marches on Syracuse. Army is laid low by epidemic. Himilco seeks peace.
Syracuse grants control of most of Sicily and must pay tribute to Carthage.
Treaty confirms Dionysius I as dictator (tyrannos) of Syracuse. First
Sicilian War concluded.
- 398 Dionysius
sacks Motya -- Carthaginians permanently relocate main Sicilian base
to fortified town of Lilybaeum.
- 397 Himilco
drives Dionysius back to Syracuse and resumes siege. In naval action,
sinks or boards 100 Syracusan naval vessels and takes 20,000 prisoners.
- 396 Epidemic
lays Punic forces low for a third time in Sicily. Dionysius capitalizes
and defeats Himilco in pitched battle. He survives, but upon return
to Carthage, starves himself to death. Fighting continues.
- 393 Carthaginian
force under Mago, nephew of Himilco, defeated trying to re-take Messana.
- 392 Mago
defeated a second time. Truce signed.
- 384 Carthage
renews war, initiating minor skirmishes.
- 375 Carthage
defeated at Cabala -- Mago and 10,000 soldiers killed. Mago's son Himilco
defeats Dionysius near Himera -- truce favorable to Carthage concluded.
- 367 Dionysius
attacks Carthaginian base at Lilybaeum -- stopped when fleet defeated
by warships under Hanno the Great.
- 366 Dionysius
I dies, still at war with Carthage.
- 360 Hanno
the Great crucified following unsuccessful attempt to usurp power.
- 350 Carthage
leading Western power.
- 348 Second
treaty with Rome.
- 343 Mago
sails to Syracuse to drive out the usurper. Fails and commits suicide
in order to avoid court martial upon his return. Hasdrubal and Hamilcar
make a second attempt, losing a battle at Segesta. Hasdrubal executed.
Gisco, son of Hanno the Great, authorized to make peace -- Sicily divided
along Halycus River. 2nd Sicilian War ends.
- 340 Power
struggle in Syracuse ends with Timoleon of Corinth victorious.
- 338 Uneasy,
yet prosperous peace in Sicily.
- 334 Alexander
the Great conquers the Eastern World. Carthage makes peace with the
Greek empire and with the Lagos monarchy in Egypt.
- 323 Alexander
- 315 Agathocles
of Syracuse takes Messana.
- 311 Agathocles
lays siege to Acragas and crosses the Halcyus, violating the peace treaty.
- 310 Carthaginian
force under Hamilcar, grandson of Hanno the Great defeats Greek force
at Himera. Siege of Syracuse begins.
- 309 Agathocles
sails force of 14,000 to Africa. Carthage meets with 40,000 foot, 1000
cavalry and 2000 chariots under Bomilcar and Hanno. Greeks are victorious,
Carthage losing 3000 on the battlefield, but city is impregnable. Siege
of Syracuse continues.
- 308 Greeks
form local allies -- Egypt contributes 10,000. Greeks control Tunisian
province and fighting continues.
- 308 Bomilcar
tries to make himself dictator in Carthage. Is defeated and tortured
- 307 Greek
victory outside Syracuse. Hamilcar captured and killed.
- 307 While
Agathocles oversees events in Syracuse, Carthage defeats the Greek and
allied forces. Despite Syracusan reinforcement, Greek cause in Africa
is doomed. Greeks desert to Carthaginian commanders Hanno and Himilco
in vast numbers. Treaty favorable to Carthage concluded.
- 306 Third
treaty with Rome.
- 300 Pytheas
explores the Atlantic, Euthymenes the coasts of Africa.
- 289 Agathocles
dies. Pre-war division of Sicily resumes. 3rd Sicilian War ends.
- 279 Pyrrhus
of Epirus, relative of Alexander the Great, invades southern Italy and
Sicily. Defeats Phoenicians and forces them off the island, leaving
Lilybaeum as the only remaining stronghold.
- 279 Agreement
with Rome against Pyrrhus.
- 277? Carthage
sinks 70 of Pyrrhus' 110 ships and Pyrrhus gives up the war.
- 272 A
woman hurls a tile from a rooftop as Pyrrhus invests Argos, killing
him before he can begin his second invasion of Sicily.
- 263 First
War with Rome begins over Sicily.
- 262 Rome
victorious at Messana. Syracuse goes over to Romans. Acragas falls to
- 261 Carthage
raids Italian coast. Rome builds its first fleet. Carthaginian defeat
at sea off Mylae. Commander Hannibal crucified. Victory at Thermae.
- 257 Another
sea defeat and Romans land in Africa, take Tunis. Carthage, under forces
led by Hasdrubal and Bostzer, defeats Rome before the gates, largely
with Numidian cavalry, led by Greek mercenary leader Xanthippus.
- 256 Hanno
the Great II expands territory in North Africa.
- 253 Rome
wins a brilliant naval victory off the Aegates Islands, west of Sicily,
cutting off African supply bases. Hasdrubal defeated outside Panormus
and is executed by his own forces. Truce called.
- 247 Hamilcar
Barca re-organizes forces on Sicily, but receives no reinforcement.
- 241 War
ends in defeat. Sicily is lost, fleet destroyed and finances ruined
due to crippling indemnity.
Mercenaries revolt and stir up poverty-stricken peasants in Libya and
Utica. Eventually defeated by Hamilcar. Rome obtains Sardinia-Corsica
as price of staying neutral.
- 237 Hamilcar
Barca reconquers Spain.
- 229 Hamilcar
dies, succeeded by son-in-law Hasdrubal.
- 228 Carthago
Nova (Cartagena) founded by Hasdrubal.
- 226 Treaty
with Rome defines Ebro River as boundary between spheres.
- 221 Hasdrubal
assassinated by an Iberian -- succeeded by Hannibal.
- 219 Hannibal
and brother Hasdrubal conquer the entire Peninsula up to the Ebro.
- 218 Hannibal
takes Roman-supported town of Saguntum.
- 218 Hannibal
marches over the Ebro, into the Alps and invades Italy with the help
of Gallic allies. Victory over Cornelius Scipio at Ticinus. Victory
at Trebia over Sempronius Longus. Rome defeats Hanno in Spain and Rome
is victorious at sea near Lilybaeum -- Malta lost to Carthage.
- 217 Victory
at Lake Trasimene over Flaminius.
- 216 Victory
at Cannae over Terentius Varro. Greek sovereigns Philip V of Macedonia
and Hiero of Syracuse join Carthage's cause, though without committing
- 214 Syracuse
falls to Roman forces commanded by Marcellus.
Scipio with aid of Numidian Prince Massinissa conquers Spain for Rome.
Scipio invades Africa, takes Tunis.
- 204 Scipio
allies with Libyans, Moors and Numidians and Numidian Prince Massinissa
to take the war to Africa. Carthage backs rival Numidian Syphax who
along with Hasdrubal Gisco is defeated by Scipio in two successive battles.
Mago is defeated in northern Italy attempting to reinforce Hannibal.
A peace treaty is declared and Hannibal returns to Africa.
- 202 Carthaginan
attack on Roman convoy which has run aground re-opens the war. Hannibal
defeated at Zama to end Second War with Rome. Fleet reduced to ten triremes,
domain limited to eastern Tunisia, Massinissa installed as king of the
Numidians at Cirta (Constantine), high indemnities and Carthage denied
permission to wage war.
Trade with North Africa and Greece continues. Agriculture improved to
bring in new revenues.
- 195 Hannibal
becomes Suffete. State reform, new methods of election.
- 194 Hannibal
flees to court of Antiochus to escape his Roman enemies.
- 183 Hannibal
dies by his own hand to escape Romans in Bithynia.
- 150 Carthage
attacks Numidians in response to Massinissa's land grabs. Numidia victorious
and further indemnities exacted.
- 149 Rome
declares war in retaliation for treaty violation.
- 146 Carthage
falls to Scipio Aemilianus. City burnt to the ground. "Delenda est Carthago."
June 22, 1998
Phoenician Encyclopedia -- Phoenicia, A Bequest Unearthed (Desktop Version)
|Contact: Salim George Khalaf, Byzantine Phoenician Descendent
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"A Bequest Unearthed, Phoenicia" — Encyclopedia Phoeniciana
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DATE (Christian and Phoenician):
year 4758 after the foundation of Tyre