Racial anthropology and genetics of the Lebanese

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Racial anthropology and genetics of the Lebanese by Daniel (Dan’El) Asade Chuckralla.

Editor's note: Based on very popular demand, I've decided to publish this rough translation without review because I've not had time to edit or review it after translation. This is a temporary measure until I have time to attend to it. I apologize for publishing it while it is not ready.

Classification and distribution of human race

Interested in tracing your genetic origin? Read about the Genographic Project were you can get your DNA tested.

Since 40,000 years, there’re five different sub-species, as product of the genetics evolution pursued by each group:

  • Sub-species Capeids of South Africa (name originated in the Cape of Good Hope)
  • Sub-species Congoids of Sub-Sahara: Central Africans, Dwarfs and Ethiopians (those’ re mixed with Caucasians)
  • Sub-species Caucasians

I Mediterranean

  • Western: Represented in Spain, Portugal, Sardinia, coast of Morocco and Tunis. The Atlantic Mediterranean is a sub-race
  • Eastern: Represented on the Black Sea Coast, in the w. of Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, Aegean Sea of Greece and Turkey
  • Dinarized: Those result from the mixture of Mediterranean + dinarics or Armenians or alpine. Represented more than 60% in the Southern Italy, 40% in Turkey, 30% in western Syria, Lebanon and Central Italy, 15% in northern Italy.
  • Arabia: More than 60% in Arabia,55% from Egypt to Syria, north of Sudan,30% in Iraq, more than 60% in the eastern Jews (Sefaradim)

2.- DINARICS: More than 60% in the Balkans and North of Italy,30% in Check Rep., Slovakia, Austria and Ukraine.

3.- ALPINES. More than 60% in Luxembourg, Hungary and Switzerland.

4.- LADOGANS: Represented by the natives of Russia

5.- NORTHERN: Represented on the British Islands, Scandinavia, Holland and Belgium more than 60% in Germany, Switzerland, Poland, Finland and Baltic’s Countries, 55% in Austria and Russia.

6.- ARMENIODS: More than 60% in Armenia,15% in Syria, Lebanon and North of % in Western Jews (Ashkenazim)

7.- TURANOIDS: Hybridised with Mongoloids, more than 60% of Kazakhstan, % in Hungary and Turkey.

8.- IRANO-AFGANOIDS: More than 60% in Iran and Afghanistan, 40% in Iraq and 15 % in Turkey.

9.- INDICUS: Represented in Pakistan and North of India.

10.- DRAVIDICS: Represented in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.

  • .Sub-species Australoids
  • Sub-species Mongoloids: Represented in China, Korea and Japan

CAUCASOIDS: THE WHITE RACE

The named white race or Caucasoid is compounded by four main sub-races: Armenian, Northern, Western Mediterranean and Lapped. The origin of the groups derived such as Alpine or Dinarics, etc. is the mixture between those main branches.

So the source of the race Caucasoid begun at the of the Glacial Era and in the beginning of Mesolithic Era.

RACIALS CHARACTERISTIC IN GENERAL

Alpine: They’re brachicephalics, with rounded face. In the western the cranium is low, while in the eastern is high.

ARABOIDS: Dolycocephalics, cranium low, eye orbit inclined, narrow and inclined front, is different of iberoid race because has specific facial dashes: rhomboid face. Eyes of almonds colour, "Semitic smile" (conditioned by a deep canine pit).This race in former epochs was a sub-race formed of the Syrian, common between the farmer of the Fertile Crescent. Today is typical of the Jews.

NORTHERN: Light eyes like the hair, low and dolycocephalic cranium, thin, with a narrowish face equal to the nose.

ARMENIANS: Brachycephalics, with the same form of head than the dinarics but with a longer nose. Abundant hair down in body and in the face,very high nose’s root, convex, with depressed.

The difference between Armenians and Dinarics is the following: in the Armenians it is presented Iranian-afghan race that provides Mediterranean, brachycephalized by their mixtue with the Alpine.

ATLANTHO-MEDITERRANEAN: High, right nose, dolycocephalics

DINARICS: Very tall, brown, high head and brachycephalic, very long face, long and more or less inclined nose, similar to people from Near East. Plain occipital . Short arms

IBERIOIDS: Dolycocephalics with low cranium, dark skin and lows. Narrow face. Horizontal orbit.

IRANOIDS: High head and dolycocephalic, long and thin face. Very influenced by the race .Abundant black or dark brown, curly, hair down in the body and beard, brown eyes. The nose ever is high and prominent, their profile sometimes is right almost convex, the depressed and low declined with moderate density and strong curvature in the wing.

LAPOIDS: Lows, high cranium and dolycocephalic, broad face, very little jaw-bone and small nose.

MEDITERRANEANS SOUTHERN AND EASTERN: Very similar to the Iberiods but with high head.

NORICS: Brachycephalics, blonds, plain occipital, were northern that were brachycephalized by the Dinarics.

FIGURES

Figure 1: Scando-northern racial type

" 2: Faelish racial type

" 3: Western Mediterranean racial type

" 4: Dinaric racial type

" 5: Eastern Baltic racial type

" 6: Eastern Alpine racial type

" 8: Eastern Mediterranean racial type

" 9: Armenian or Armeniod racial type

Figure 10: Araboid racial type

figure 7 is blank it should be (I think) the Iranoids

GENERAL RACIAL CHARECTERISTICS OF THE SYRIAN

The Syrian region (It includes the Republic of Lebanon and Arabic Republic of Syria) is divided anthropometrically in four regions:

Lebanon, Alawite, Damas, Homs-Hama-Alep

Map.

Metric Analysis

Height

Lebanon

1.67

Alawite

1.67

Damas

1.67

Homs-Hama-Alep

1.69

Arabic

1.64

Samaritans

1.70

Armenians

1.66

Greeks

1.66

Turkish

1.68

Curds

1.70

Syrians and Armenians have higher trunk compared to the total height

Breadth size

Homs-Hams-Aleppo have the largest torso among the Syrians

HEAD’S LONGITUDE

All Syrians have short longitude, Lebanon and Alawite have the lowest values

Lebanon

183

Alawite

183.7

Damacus

188.4

Homs-Hama-Alep

186.2

Armenians

184.3

Greeks

187.2

Head’s large

All Syrians’ re hipsicephalics

Large-height head’s index

All Syrians’ re metriocephalics. Lebanon and Alawite have lower and larger head than Damacus and Homs-Hama-Aleppo.

BIZIGOMATIC DIAMETER

This sign is different in Armenians and Syrians. Damacus has the narrowest face while Alawite has the largest.

Lebanon

138.1

Alawite

139.55

Damacus

137.30

Homs-Hama-Aleppo

138.75

Armenians

142.84

Samaritans

132.00

Mesopotamia’s

133.00

Greeks

139.90

Bulgarians

137.00

Face’s height

The Syrians have a moderated — long face. The northern part of Syria has higher values than the southern.

Lebanon

122.35

Alawite

124.00

Damacus

122.80

Homs-Hama-Aleppo

126.40

Armenians

127.96

Bulgarians

117.14

Mesopotamia’s

114.50

Samaritans

120.00

Turkish

124.00

Caucasus

125.00

FACIAL INDEX

Lebanon

88.26

Alawite

88.94

Damacus

89.26

Homs-Hama-Aleppo

91.74

Armenians

89.74

Bulgarians

85.47

MINIMUM FRONTAL DIAMETER

Homs-Hama-Aleppo has the narrowest value, while Lebanon the

widest.

BIGONIAL DIAMETER

BIGONIAL DIAMETER

Lebanon

107.46

Alawite

107.82

Damacus

106.66

Homs-Hama-Aleppo

108.46

NOSE’S HEIGHT

Homs-Hama-Aleppo has a very long nose. The other three regions don’t have any differences among them. The Armenians have the longest nose, even H-H-A. Generally the Syrians have very long noses such as the region of Balkans, Minor Asia and the Caucasus.

Lebanon

55.18

Alawite

55.50

Damacus

54.78

Homs-Hama-Aleppo

57.00

Armenians

59.93

Greeks

52.3

Arabic

50.24

Turkish

52.00

NOSE’S WIDTH

The diameter between the nostrils is moderated in Syrians, but Homs - Hama - Aleppo has the narrowest value while the Armenians the widest.

Lebanon

34.79

Alawite

34.67

Damacus

34.85

Homs - Hama- Aleppo

33.59

Armenians

37.96

Greeks

35.96

Arabic

35.10

NOSE INDEX

Syrians and Armenians’ re leptorhines, Homs - Hama - Aleppo hiperleptorhine.

Lebanon

63.30

Alawite

62.74

Damacus

63.26

Homs-Hama- Aleppo

58.66

Armenians

63.80

Greeks

68.49

Arabic

74.48

METRIC ANALYSIS CONCLUSIONS

Lebanon and Alawite don’t have any differences. Lebanon as Alawite has more differences with Homs-Hama- Aleppo than with Damacus

Lebanon and Alawite are distinguished from Damacus, because the first has a trunk large trunk, narrow face, short nose and narrow mandible.

Lebanon and Alawite’ re different from Homs - Hama - Aleppo, because the later is taller, has a higher head, low frontal diameter, very long face, narrow nose and wider mandible.

H-H-.Aleppo is characterised of Damacus because the first are higher,have a wider thorax, shorter and narrower head, long and tight face, long and narrow nose.

Respect to the homogeneity of regions, we could said:

Damacus is larger than H-H- Aleppois larger than Lebanon and equal to Alawite.

SYRIANS AND ARMENIANS COMPARED

Armenians shown more relation with Lebanon and Alawite than with Damacus and H - H- Aleppo. The difference between Armenians and Lebanon-Alawite, is that the first has absolute long measures (except from the height and head’s height)

The difference between the Armenians and the other regions is founded in that the latter have narrow head, tight and short face, narrower mandible and narrower nose, the latter is shorter. They’re also more dolycocephalics and akrocephalics.

The variance between Armenians and H-H-Aleppo is that the latter are higher, with narrower head and face, tight and shorter nose, more dolycocephalics and akrocephalics, leptoprosopics and leptorhines.

MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

All the values are in percent (%)

Skin

Lebanon

Alawite

Damacus H-H-

Aleppo

Clear brown

73.17

78.40

66.60

64.70

Pale

16.70

17.70

07.80

17.60

Without speck

87.60

88.00

100.00

87.50

HAIR

Lebanon

Alawite

Damacus

H-H-Aleppo s

Armen

Quantity

50med

51me

61me

47me

72m.

head

33much

18little

39lit

25much

16lit

Quantity

55me

72me

75me

69me

66m

beard

32lit

15lit

25lit

19mu

21m

Quantity

43lit

52lit

52lit

35lit

13lit.

body

34me

37much

36me

42me

60me

Colour

49black

47black

31black

18m

35black

 

42brown

43brown

53brown

58brown

52brown

configuation

dark

dark

dark

dark

dark

wavy

68

55

67

82

95

straight

1

37

28

12

3

curly

14

8

6

6

2

EYES

Lebanon

Alawite

Damacus

H-H Aleppo

Armen

clear

         

brown

16

8

6

6

59

brown

         

blue

0.5

6

-

-

3

brown

         

Dark

         

brown

68

69

78

65

18

grey

2

2

-

6

5

brown

         

green

9

13

11

12

14

blue

4

2

-

-

-

grey-blue

1

--

6

12

1

Dark

86

79

84

77

82

Clear

14

21

16

23

18

NOSE

The Armenians have a very high % respect to the depression in the point of the nose, they’ re considered as

"Ultra-Armenioids"

A convex profile is predominant between Syrians and Armenians specially in H-H-Aleppo. Armenians have a very high root. The bridge is elevated in all. The outline is generally for both right or convex.

Depression 55med 69med. 52sbmed. 58me 74subme

nosion

(related with nose)

Profile

         

Concave

9

8

11

12

3

Right

21

8

21

-

33

Convex

53

67

58

82

60

Conc-

16

17

11

6

4

Convex

         

ROOT

Size

medium

med

med

med

med

Height Middle

59

66

52

41

37

Pronounced

28

42

41

60

56

Point

         

Elevated

71

73

38

70

11

Depressed

26

25

61

29

85

FRONT

Armenians have lower forehead than Syrians, but both have a wide forehead. The inclined forehead is practically absent in 52% of Syrians and 21% of Armenians.

Frontal

Inclination Lebanon Alawite Damacus H-H-A. Ar

Absent 65 22 42 12 21

Middle 30 56 57 87 60

Pronounced 4 20 - - 19

OCCIPITAL REGION:

The occipital in Syrians is very little developmed and the Armenians have the lowest. That implies the posterior part of the cranium is plain in nearly 100% of Syrians and Armenians.

FACIAL REGION:

The malar (is a bone note of G.E) of Armenians is prominent while in the Syrians is subnormal. Because of the bizigomatic diameter is bigger in the Armenians. The bigonial angle is very prominent in Armenians and moderated in all Syrians. The chin (a bone of the mandible) is prominent in Syrians and Armenians.

Leb Alawite Damacus H-H-A- Arm.

Malars

Submed 45 26 36 35 8

Middle 52 46 57 64 45

Pronounced 2.5 26 5 - 45

ANGLE

Bigonial

Submid 18 15 15 17 3

Middle 59 64 57 64 46

Pronounc 22 20 26 17 50

Chin

Prominence

Leb

Alawite

Damacus

H-H-A

Arm

Absent

0.6

-

-

-

-

Submedium

34

35

26

29

29

Middle

51

49

47

52

56

Pronounced

13

15

26

17

13

EARS

In Syrians the lobule is middle or pronounced in size and developed, while in Armenians is shorter. It is free in 71% of Syrians an 77% of Armenians.

MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS CONCLUSSIONS

There’re strong similitude between Lebanon in one hand and Alawite and Damacus and H-H-A in the other, thus we may classify a coastal region and a hinterland region. Lebanon shown the least number of differences with Syria in total, while Alawite has more. H-H-A is the most divergent of the groups with the total of the pattern (Syria in this case).Damacus is in the middle of Lebanon+Alawite and H-H-A.

General Analysis (physically) of Armenians

The type Armeniod has a distinguish characteristic that hasn’t any other group of the sub-specie Caucasoid: the depression in the nose’s point, presented in the 67.32% of the Armenians.

The " Ultra-Armenoid " has these characteristic

Hair’s style wavy

" texture medium-thick

Whistler quantity moderate - pronounced

Quantity of hair

in the cheek " "

Quantity of hair

in low maxillary moderate-pronounced

Colour of hair in head black - dark brown

" " " " beard " " "

Eyes’ colour clear brown - dark

Eye-brow thickness moderate-pronounced

Frontal inclination " "

Nasion’s depression " "

Height of nose’s root " "

Size " " bridge " "

Height " " " " "

Thickness of nose’s point " "

Elevation " " " horizontal or depressed

Nostrils Medium-florescent

Malar prominence moderate-pronounced

Gonial angle " "

Occipital levelled present

Occipital protrusion little or absent

Nose’s profile right - convex

concaveconvex

"ULTRA-ARMENIODS" VALUES

Height 1.63

Head’s length .181.78

" size .159.83

Cephalic index .88

Head’s height .123.2

Bizigomatic diameter 145

Face’s height .126.6

Facial index 86.94

Nose’s height 60.61

" size 33.90

Nasal index 64.60

Bigonial diameter 111.30

GENERAL ANALYSIS OF SYRIAN MATERIAL

The Armenians in absolute measures have higher values than the Syrians, but with reference to the index they’re equal (the difference is 0.88%)

The Syrians’ re taller than the Armenians, the hair in the head is more abundant, they have clear beards with high frequency but blacks are common, many have faded or waved hair with thin texture, more frequently dark brown eyes than clear brown, a deep depression in the nasion of the nose’s bridge is lower but larger, the profile is the same, more frequency in noses with elevated point of root and larger nasal walls. The forehead is wider more common in Armenians as well as the inclination. Armenians have more pronounced malars and less occipital protrusion, the Armeniod element is the basic compound of the Syrian population. The total Syrian suite share 12 important Armeniods character (remember the "ultra armeniod" should have the 25 )

Colour of head’s hair

Eyes’ colour

Nasion depression

Nose’s root: height and large

" bridge: " " "

Nose’s point: Thickness and elevation

" profile

Plain occipital

Occipital protusion

23,4% of all Syrians have these 12 armenoid characteristics. Thus, Syrians with these distinctive are appointed as "Syrian- Armeniods". The rest of the Syrians don’t belong to this designation, the differences are the following: less brachicephalics, taller, less leptorhines.

Total Syrians Syrians

Armeniods

Height

167.2(1)

165.12

Head’s length

183. 1

181.2

"size

155.5

155.1

Cephalic index

85.1

85.7

Head’s height

127.8

127.6

Frontal Diameter

106.8

106.8

Facial height

122.9

123.5

Bizigomathic diameter

138.8

138.8

Facial Index

88.6

88.8

Nose’s height

55.2

55.5

Nose’s size

34.76

34.85

Nasal index

63.16

62.54

Bigonial diameter

107.62

107.9

  1. I don’t know the unit of measure, perhaps, they are expressed in centimetres.(note of G.E)

PROVINCES WITH MAIN REPRESENTATION OF EACH

ELEMENT

  • The Mediterranean-Arabic-Berbers have a very important representation in Damacus (have dark brown eyes, long head, narrow face, short and wide nose, narrow inferior maxillary, etc,

they’re short)

  • The Nordic element is highly represented in Homs - Hama - Aleppo (high eyes, high heads, long faces, long and narrow nose, etc.)
  • The Armeneiod element is prevalent in Lebanon and Alawite (light brown eyes, etc.)

RACIAL ANTHROPOLOGY AS ETHNIC GROUPS OF

THE NEAR EAST

Note: the regions are the following: Beirut, Homs, Hama, Aleppo, Palmyra, Turkmen’s region, Jabal Nusairiyyeh, Nablus, Petra. Respect to the Muslims were consider the no Bedouins, only.

Bedouins

Their habitat goes from the east of Homs to the Euphrates river. Their head is high and dolycocephalic. Foreheads and faces are narrow. They have homogeneity. The Araboid and Mediterranean races have something of mixture between Nordic and Iranoids. In comparison to Muslims, the nose is identical, both are Mediterranean, but Muslims have a strong Armeniod type.Bedouins have affinity with Turkmen, but the difference with the first is that they haven’t got any Iranoid elements.

Black hair

75.0%

Brown eyes

71.0%

Hazelnut "

3.50%

Grey

5.30%

Blue

2.00%

Light brown skin

40.0%

Ocular diameter

31.00

Bedouins

Muslims

Mesopot.

Arabic

Forehead

103

105

104

Bizigomatic diameter

135

137

138

Facial height

120

121

129

Cephalic Index

76

80

76

Nasal Index

69

69

61

MUSLIMS

The cranium is mesocephalic and high. Their forehead is narrow like the internal margin of the eyes and inclined as the Armeniod type. The face’ s height is more than in the Bedouins. They’re leptoprosopics and almost mesorrhines. They’re more brachycephalics than the Bedouins and the distance between their eyes is bigger. The vertex position is more posterior and the face is bigger and longer, alike the nose. If they have dark brown eyes, they are more Araboid Mediterranean, while the clearer eyes are more brachycephalic, thus it means, a presence of Nordic and Armeniod.

The Armeniod characteristic is evident in the nose, the shape of the head and in the initial part of the face and the Nordic’s dash along the face and the light eyes. In the Muslims the race Araboid-Mediterranean is predominant and in second place the Armenoid comes with a Nordic adulteration. Muslims are more dolycocephalics than the Orthodox Greeks, have a higher head, similar to the bizigamtic diameter, more leptoprosopics and less leptorhines, hence, the Orthodox Greeks are more Armeniods than the Araboids.. Maronites and Syrians, vary from Muslims in the great proportion of Armeniod elements that the first hold.

Expressed in Percent

Black hair

42.00

brown eyes

55.00

hazelnut

0.15

green

1.20

olive

0.40

grey

12.00

sky-blue

0.80

blue

8.40

light brown skin

36.00

Inter-ocular diameter

32.00

   
 

Muslims

Greek Orthodox

Maronites

Syrians

Forehead

105

105

105

107

Bizigomatic

       

diameter

137

137

137

139

Facial height

121

118

119

123

Cephalic Index

80

83

85

85

Nasal Index

69

67

72

 

SAMMARITANS

They’ re distinguished, by abundant and extensive beard, distributed on the upper part of the jaw-bone. 37% of this group has clear eyes. The nose is convex and the depression in the point isn’t predominant, but the ultra-curved nostril is common. The cranium is mesocephalic, very inclined Armenoid type with vertex nearly the occipital. Are diversifies hisicephalics and akrocephalics, mainly leptroprosopics and leptorhines. The basis element is the Iranoid is evident in the big nasality, the great height of cranium and the facial longitude. Nordic presence is accentuated in the lepthorrinity and leptoprosopism. The second important element is the Atlantic - Mediterranean, in the third is the Armeniod. They vary very much from the Maronites, Nusayries and Druzes because all of them are hiperbrachycephalics consequence of the Armeniod element.

Samaritans also have some relation with Bedouins, Muslims and Turkish, since in the last the Araboid element is predominant.

Quantities expressed in percentages (note of G.E)

Dark brown hair 39.00

Eyes " brown 34.00

" " hazelnut 0.18

" " grey 0.80

" " blue 19.00

Pale skin 76.00

Inter-ocular diameter 30.00

Samaritans Turkish Maronites Nusayries Druzes

Forehead 104 105 105 106 107

Bizigomatic

Diameter 132 136 137 139 140

Facial height 124 120 119 124 120

Cephalic 78 75 85 86 85

Index

Nasal Index 67 66 72 65 71

TURKISH

The nose’ s point is ascendant and the nasal’ s pit is marked, so, the Armeniod characteristic of the nose is absent. The cranium is dolycocephalic, with a very projected occipital. They hold some mongoloid features. The basic element is the Araboid and second ones are the Armenoids and Nordic.

Quantities expressed in percentages (note of G.E.) except Inter-ocular index.

Black hair 68.00

Eyes brown 58.00

hazelnut 15.00

" grey 10.00

blue 5.00

yellowish skin 47.00

Inter-ocular diameter 0.32

MARONITES

Their skin is moderated dark for the region. The cranium is hiperbrachycephalic absolutely very high and in relation to longitude and large. They’ re not broad in forehead and face, but these dimensions are greater than in Samaritans, Bedouins and Turkish. The forehead is narrow if we think of the wide face but the face is tight related to the bi-parietal length. They’re mesoprosopics with a big leptoprosopic inclination. Noses are not very long and with moderate size, mesorhine type. The ears are big. The dominant element is Armeniod, the evidence is the brachycephalic the face’s wide, mesoprosopism and the low frequency of nasal appendix. Second is the Iranoid. Third has somewhat of mixture with Mediterranean, Nordics or Eastern Baltic. It has a extreme relation with druzes, but those’ re more Armeniods hence their big bizigomatic diameter. The Nusayries have more Iranoid elements thus they have longer and narrow heads, tight and short face and mesorrhine nose. Orthodox Greeks are less brachycephalics, the head is lower, the forehead is narrow, the higher and with little wider, that’ s a consequence of the strong presence of Mediterranean element in Orthodox Greeks.

Quantities in percentage except Inter-ocular Index

Hair dark brown 52.00

Eyes brown 42.00

" hazelnut 16.00

" grey 16.00

" blue 6.00

Skin clear brown 42.00

Skin coppery 38.00

Inter-ocular diameter 31.00

Maronites Druzes Nusayries Orthodox

Greeks

Forehead 105.00 107.00 106.00 105.00

Bizigomatic

Diameter 137. 00 141.00 139.00 137.00

Facial

Height 119. 00 121.00 124.00 119.00

Facial

Index 85.00 85.00 87.00 83.0

Nasal

Index 72.00 71.00 65.00 67.0

Syrians Armenians Alawitetas

Forehead 107.00 108.00 110.00

Bizigomatic

Diameter 139.00 143.00 135.00

Facial

Height 123.00 128.00 122.00

Facial 85.00 86.00 84.00

Index

Nasal

Index 63.00 64.00 65.00

DRUZES

The cranium is high and hiperbrachycephalic. In the face they’ re mesoporsopics in the direction of europrosopics. Long noses and not very big, mesorrhines and nearly leptorrhines. With brown eyes ‘re very Armeniods.They have elements of Eastern Baltic and Nordics. Such as the Maronites the main element is Armeniod. The Nusairiyyeh ‘ re different because they’ re more brachycephalics. with narrower foreheads and faces, long face like the nose. Greeks Orthodox, Syrians and Armenians have not relation to the Druzes. The Greeks Orthodox are more Mediterranean than Druzes, while Syrians are more Armeniods

Inter-ocular diameter 33

Forehead 107

Bizigomatic diameter 0.141

Facial height 0.120

Cephalic index 0.85

Nasal Index 0.71

These quantities are expressed in percentages (note of G.E)

Brown eyes 59.00

Green " 2. 00

Olive " 0.20

Grey " 0.20

Blue " 15.00

Light brown skin 98.00

NUSAIRIYYEH

The main part has clear eyes. The skin is very light for the region. The Nordic race is very important. The forehead is very high, the nose narrow in the root and wide in the basis and the profile is right convex with the point depressed.

The cranium is hiperbrachycephalus ultra-armeniod type, is omitted the narrower in the bi-parietal region characteristic of Iranoids. The inter-ocular diameter is close, the facial height is very big, very lepthotrosopic. The nose is long and with moderate size, lepthorrhine Armeniod type in length but not in the width. Frequently they haven’t the depressed manner of the nasal point and convexity. Faces haven’t got the Armeniod size, we could say that Nusairiyyeh are a mixture of races that shaped a different form, consistent.The main component is Armeniod and less than the Iranoid, something of Araboid and Nordic.

Except Inter-ocular diameter these quantities are expressed in percentages (note of G.E)

Hair dark brown 55.00

Brown eyes 40.00

Hazel nut " 20.00

Grey " 0.80

Blue " 12.00

Sky blue " 8.00

Pale skin 88.00

Inter-ocular diameter 0.310

ORTHODOX GREEKS

Their cranium is high and brachycephalic, but not alike Maronites, Nusairiyyeh and Druzes. The Mediterranean element is evident in the tendency to dolycocephly. The face is narrow and their nose too. The Armeniod element is predominant, that is evident in the big size of the cranium and his height in excess, also the height of the face, the nose’s longitude and wide dimension. Nordics, Eastern Baltic and Iranoids elements are present but in a less measure.

Muslims are more Mediterranean than Orthodox Greeks, those are more Armeniods and Iranoids. Syrians and Armenians have high forehead and bizigomatic diameter. Thus, Orthodox Greeks have more relation to Syrians than Armenians

Except Inter-ocular diameter these quantities ‘re in percentages (note of G.E.)

Inter-ocular diameter 0.31 (sic. 31)

Dark brown hair 45.00

Brown eyes 0.54

Hazel nut " 18.00

Green " 0.10

Grey-green " "

Grey 6.00

Blue 14.00

Clear brown skin 42.00

COMPLETION

  • In the region of Near East in more quantity the Mediterranean Araboid race lives: high and thin. Purely is represented by the Bedouins in less grade for the Muslims and very diluted in the other groups.
  • In second place come the Atlanta - Mediterranean: strong as the Samaritans
  • Third is the Iranoid, they’re not pure is present in mixture with Armeniods
  • Fourth the Armeniod, represented by Maronites and Orthodox Greeks
  • Fifth is the mixture Nordic and Eastern. Baltic.

Photographs

Bedouins Nusairiyyieh Samaritans Muslims Orthodox

Greeks

Maronites

Put here to amplify the photographs

STUDY OF CHROMOSOME- Y

Frequencies in (%) of types of haploid in the chromosome - y

The Lebaneses are different from the other peoples of Middle East because they haven’t got the following haploid: 1Ha 1 c 1L. Those haploid is low in % in all peoples of Near East (except the 1Ha in Arabic Saudis ), thus the tendency in hold those three haploid is low between the peoples of Middle East.

Lebanese has more % of haploid Med (in comparison with the other haploid that they have) alike Druzes, Syrians, Palestines and Saudis. Hence, the haploid is more characteristic between the peoples of Middle East.

% Med Syrians > Palestines > Lebanese>Druzes> Saudis

% 4 S Lebanese > Palestines = Druzes > Syrians > Saudis

% 1 R Lebanese > Palestines = Saudis > Syrians > Druzes

Lebanese has coincidence with Yemenites Jews because they haven’t the haploid 1 Ha, like the Ethiopian Jews.

Roman Jews and Ethiopian Jews coincide becuase they haven’t the haploid 1c

They coincide because they don’t hold the haploid 1L the Ethiopians

" " " " " 1 Ha nor 1c nor 1L the Ethiopians Jews

The haploid most characteristic between Jews is Med. All Jewish characterise in hold haploid Med and 4 S. The Ethiopian Jews are different from the others Jews because they don’t have the haploid 1 c 1 D and 1 L present in the latter.

Any European coincide with the Lebanese because they don’t have haploid 1 Ha 1 C and 1L. The haploid most characteristic in Europeans is 1 L, it’s not in Lebanese. The haploid is high in Europeans in comparison with another and this is present in Lebanese.

The North of Africa coincide with Lebanese in hasn’t haploid 1 Ha. In North of Africa the haploid more common is 4 S.

Sub-Saharans has coincidence with Lebanese in hasn’t haploid 1 Ha 1 C and 1 L. Any of those haploid are characteristic in those peoples.

In the Turks the haploid most common is Med but with a valour very low.

Synopsis

  • Lebanese’ re related with Middle East peoples but they’re clearly distinguish of them in that Lebanese hasn’t haploid 1 Ha, 1 C nor 1 L. Because those haploid’ re present in the other peoples of Near East in a low percentage. Among the peoples of Middle East, Palestine’s and Druzes ’re most coincidence with Lebanese(In reference with the haploid studied)
  • The relation between Lebanese and Jews is that in these the gen Med is predominant. Coincidence with Ethiopians Jews is in 100% because they hasn’t haploid 1 Ha, 1 C nor 1 L. Among all Jewish population, the more coincident with Lebanese’ re Ethiopians and Yemenites Jews (in reference with haploid studied)
  • There’s not coincidence with Europeans except in 1 R. The haploid most characteristic of Europeans is 1L (not 1 R as is wrote in the article, observation of G.E.) and it’s not present in Lebanese.
  • Northern Africans coincident with Lebanese in hasn’t haploid 1 Ha.

Sub-Saharans has coincidence with Lebanese in 100% they hasn’t 1 Ha, 1 C nor 1 L.

Lebanese has a strong presence of gene ( in relation with genetic, a branch of Biological Sciences) Med (46%) is a characteristic of peoples of Middle East Jewish included and a mighty absence of haploid 1 Ha 1 C and 1 L (0%) characteristic alike in Druzes, Saudis, Yemenites Jews, Ethiopians Jews, North Africans and Sub-Saharans.

Jewish and Middle Eastern descend of a mixture of men that have had only 8 of total variations existent in the chromosome Y (4 S, 1R, Med, 1 Ha, 1 U, 1 C, 1 D, 1L)

Lebanese Med >4S >1R

Palestines Med >4S > 1L

Syrians Med > 4S > 1L = 1 D

Druzes Med > 4S = 1U

Saudis Med > 1U > 1D

Jews Med > 4S > 1L

Europeans 1L > 1R > 4S

Northern-Africans 4S > Med > others

In Near East all peoples hold: Med > 4S > "X", X is the dependant variable that determined the group.

Example: in Lebanese "X" = 1 R

Jewish has coincidence with Palestines, Syrians, Lebanese and Druzes

Med. Common in Mediterranean and Europe

4 S common in Ethiopia arrived to Near East by means of Nile river

See genealogy three of haploid forward

FREQUENCIES % TYPES OF HAPLOID IN CHROMOSOME - Y

POPULATION N 4S 1R Med 1Ha 1 U

Jewish 336 20 5 36 5 8

Ashkenazi 115 24 12 31 2 3

Romans 44 16 --- 45 5 7

Northern Africans 45 20 2 42 18 7

Near East 32 13 3 28 6 16

Curds 50 8 4 44 6 18

Yemenites 30 17 -- 43 -- 7

Ethiopians 20 45 -- 10 -- 7

Middle Eastern

no Jewish 230 15 5 50 4 10

Palestines 73 19 5 51 3 7

Syrians 91 10 3 57 3 8

Lebanese 24 29 13 46 -- 4

Druzes 21 19 -- 38 19 19

Saudis 21 5 5 33 5 24

Europeans 337 15 16 11 6 2

Northern Africans 137 50 1 26 -- 4

SuhSaharan Africans 199 6 -- 1 -- 1

Other

Turks 98 6 12 26 9 12

Lemba 34 6 6 26 32

HAPLOID

POPULATION 1 C 1 D 1 L OTHER

Jewish 7 5 10 4

Ashkenazi 4 9 10 3

Romans -- 5 20 2

Northern Africans 4 4 2 --

Near East 31 ---- 3 --

Curds 8 4 8 --

Yemenites 10 3 17 3

Ethiopians 40

Middle Eastern

no Jewish 2 6 6 3

Palestines 1 8 5

Syrians 1 9 9 --

Lebanese -- 4 -- 4

Druzes 5 -- -- --

Saudis 5 19 -- 5

EUROPEANS 1 11 37 1

North Africans 1 1 4 12

Sub-Saharan Africans -- -- -- 93

ANOTHER

Turks 3 5 20 6

Lemba -- -- -- 29

Solely shown the haploid common in Jewish population

Discord between Groups

Jews/MEA/EUR/NAF .11.9%

Jews/MEA 0.3%

Jews/EUR 5.06%

MEA/EUR 10.40%

Jews/NAF 18.90%

MEA/NAF 20.80%

EUR /NAF 26.50%

Results are indicatives that religion is the most useful to predict the genetic affi

nit than geographic location. Example NAF Jews = EUR Jews

GENETIC AFFINITIES BETWEEN GROUPS

Sub-Saharans, North Africans and Europeans form three different groups.

Jewish population: Ashkenaz, Romans, North Africans, Near Eastern, Curds and Yemenites are a compact group between the groups of North Africa and Europe. The Jewish group is dispersed in the population of Syria and Palestine, while Saudis, Lebanese and Druzes rounded.

Inner the Jewish population, the Ashkenazis are more related with Greeks and Turks. The Ethiopian Jews are practically with Ethiopians.

GRAPIC 1

Multidimensional scale of populations based in haploid of Chromosome - Y.

Triangles represents the Jewish population, quadrates to Near East and circles all the rest of populations considered

GENEALOGIC TREE OF HAPLOID

In all the world 19 types of chromosome Y exist. Below is shown the genealogical tree of 19 haploid -As we can see in the Graphic 2 the haploid Med was formed circa 20000 years and is descendent of 1 R formed since 60000 years and it still exists l . He has brothers such as the 1 Ha and the ancestor of 1 U 1 C 1 L 1 D.

All begun 140000 years ago

4S NAF

1R Europeans

Med MEA Jewish and no Jews

1 Ha Druzes and Jews of NAF

1 U Saudis, Asiatic

1 C Jews of Near East, Asiatic

1 L Romans Jews, Europeans and Turks

1 D Saudis, Europeans

Med also is distributed between the Mediterranean and Europe and a cause may be that it was transported by the Phoenicians and the diffusion of Neolithic agriculture.

4 S was formed in NAF and expanded to East through Nile River and Europe

1 U and 1 C are common in Asiatic

GRAPHIC 2

Genealogical tree in the time for 19 haploid of chromosome - y. Each event mutant in one of the 18 places of portion no re-combining of chromosome - y is represented by a point (polymorphism of only one nucleonic ) or a quadrate (a little insertion/suppression).

The mutational ages (in 1000 year or 10 to third potent) are indicated in the y axis.

The haploid definite for mutational event are on the x axis.

COMMON DISEASES IN LEBANESE POPULATION

"LEBANESE "ALLELE

A mutation of the gene that codify for the receptor of lipoprotein with low density

produce a protein receptor that hasn’t three components. That’s produced because a nucleonic made a premature cord of termination, strike out the protein residues.

Three Lebanese patients and one Syrian (all with hipercholesterolemic -high level of cholesterol in blood) has this modification in the gene.

Called Lebanese allele ( it is a concept related to genetic ) is the guilty of the high index of high level of cholesterol in Lebanon.

BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN

In a 77% of Lebanese blind children, has a genetic motive.

The marriage between consanguinity relatives, is a determinant factor.

MORE FREQUENT DISEASES

Lebanon has a big incidence of genetic diseases common and, rarest for the diversity of ethnic groups and the high level of consanguinity marriages in certain communities.

A research demonstrate that the Lebanese’s genetic structure is Caucasoid (Although with some Oriental dash detected).

The following genetic diseases were surveyed (some of these were characteristic of certain ethnic groups and other should be by the regional geographic (sic)

  • Polyserositis
  • Hypercholesterolemic
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen Syndrome
  • Sandhoff disease
  • Haematological diseases

GENE that codifIES for Protein C3

With endonucleasas (enzymes with capacity to decipher the genetic structure

of individuals is detected a high frequency of fragment SAC1 and a low fre

quency of TAQ1.

Hyperplasia Adrenal

There’s a mutation called Delta8nt solely present in Maronite Community that

produces deficiency of one enzyme which motive hyperplasia adrenal

Sandhoff disease

This ill is too frequent in Lebanese population, was detected in MARONITES

migrant who lives in Cyprus

Fibrosis cystic

In Lebanon a mutation of gene CFTR is common and causes the high frequency

of fibrosis cystic in the people.

FIBROSIS CYSTIC IN EUROPE

The mutation G542X is the second in Europe after DF508 that produces fibrosis cystic.

The frequency in the mutation of the gene G542X producer of fibrosis cystic, vary between the populations groups of Europe, is most common in the South West than in the North East. The places with high values of G542X correspond

to the old sites once occupied by Phoenicians in Western, hence this mutation

is named "Phoenician Mutation".

FINAL CONCLUSION

180,000 years ago the Homo Sapiens was born in the Sub-Saharan region and

only 20,000 years later distributed towards Southwest Asia, lately in 40,000 BC were dispersed in Europe. That moment was the start of the own genetic evolution of each sub-specie thus formed the five sub-species existent until nowadays.

As we may see in the maps, in the Near East region the following sub-

groups of sub-specie Caucasoid (white race) is distributed

  • Mediterranean: Iberoid, Atlantic-Mediterranean and Dinarazed
  • Armeniod
  • Dinaroid
  • Iranoid

In the Lebanese region Armeniods, Dinarics and

Mediterranean — Dinarized elements are present, the Araboid element is absent thus it may us classify to

main part of Lebanese as "Syrians Armenoids". A region united to Lebanon in a

geographic and historical point of view is Syrian coast wider in early times all the region was unified under the name of "Cannaneans’s country".

In all Near East different ethnic groups generally exist accompanied by the sub-specie that they belong and Lebanon isn’t an exception. The "religious pertinence"

is an essential element for codified ethnic groups.

In Christians communities the element "Syrian Armenia" is characteristic, while in the Muslims add an strong presence of Araboid element. This suggest that the history such as was counted happened.

To element "Syrian Armeniod" belongs to the Canaanites (aboriginal inhabitants of Lebanon) and in the VII AD Century one part resisted the Arab invaders and one part mixed with them. The first were the Christians. Today, the Christians come from the old Canaanites and the Muslims come from the same but with additional mixture with Arabs.

The genetic studies of Chromosome - Y do not contradict with the anthropometric measures. The haploid Med (characteristic of Near East population) was made 20,000 years ago and it’s expanded even in Saudis, suggest that is was formed lately and this is an evolution of the mixture of Armeniods and Araboids, it’s the main element because Med in Syrians / Lebanese / Palestines / Druzes > Saudis.

But the genetic evolution continues in each population, as we may see in the high frequency of hypercholesterolemic in Lebanon by the mutation of Lebanese Allele (or Allelum) respect to religious pertinence we could see that there are characteristics gene belonging to each community and generally grouped isolated one from each other, is evident in certain diseases present in determined groups.

Finally, demonstrated the genetic continuous from the Phoenician times to nowadays in the Lebanese we should see the high values of fibrosis cystic (caused by the specific Phoenician mutation) and of haploid Med highly distributed in Lebanon and in places were inhabited by Phoenicians

Bibliography

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