40,000 years, therere five different sub-species, as product of
the genetics evolution pursued by each group:
- Sub-species Capeids of South Africa (name originated in the Cape of Good
- Sub-species Congoids
of Sub-Sahara: Central Africans, Dwarfs and Ethiopians (those re
mixed with Caucasians)
- Sub-species Caucasians
- Western: Represented in Spain, Portugal, Sardinia, coast of Morocco and
Tunis. The Atlantic Mediterranean is a sub-race
- Eastern: Represented on the Black Sea Coast, in the w. of Ukraine, Romania,
Bulgaria, Aegean Sea of Greece and Turkey
- Dinarized: Those result from the mixture of Mediterranean + dinarics or
Armenians or alpine. Represented more than 60% in the Southern Italy, 40%
in Turkey, 30% in western Syria, Lebanon and Central Italy, 15% in northern
- Arabia: More than 60% in Arabia,55% from Egypt to Syria, north of Sudan,30%
in Iraq, more than 60% in the eastern Jews (Sefaradim)
2.- DINARICS: More than 60% in the Balkans and North of Italy,30% in
Check Rep., Slovakia, Austria and Ukraine.
3.- ALPINES. More than 60% in Luxembourg, Hungary and Switzerland.
4.- LADOGANS: Represented
by the natives of Russia
5.- NORTHERN: Represented
on the British Islands, Scandinavia, Holland and Belgium more than 60% in
Germany, Switzerland, Poland, Finland and Baltics
Countries, 55% in Austria and Russia.
6.- ARMENIODS: More than 60% in Armenia,15% in Syria, Lebanon and North
of % in Western Jews (Ashkenazim)
7.- TURANOIDS: Hybridised with Mongoloids, more than 60% of Kazakhstan,
% in Hungary and Turkey.
8.- IRANO-AFGANOIDS: More than 60% in Iran and Afghanistan, 40%
in Iraq and 15 % in Turkey.
9.- INDICUS: Represented in Pakistan and North of India.
10.- DRAVIDICS: Represented in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.
- .Sub-species Australoids
- Sub-species Mongoloids: Represented in China, Korea and Japan
CAUCASOIDS: THE WHITE RACE
The named white race or Caucasoid is compounded by four main sub-races: Armenian,
Northern, Western Mediterranean and Lapped. The origin of the groups derived
such as Alpine or Dinarics, etc. is the mixture between those main branches.
So the source of the race Caucasoid begun at the of the Glacial Era and in
the beginning of Mesolithic Era.
RACIALS CHARACTERISTIC IN GENERAL
Alpine: Theyre brachicephalics,
with rounded face. In the western the cranium is low, while in the eastern
cranium low, eye orbit inclined, narrow and inclined front, is different
of iberoid race because has specific facial
dashes: rhomboid face. Eyes of almonds colour, "Semitic smile" (conditioned
by a deep canine pit).This race in former epochs was a sub-race formed of the
Syrian, common between the farmer of the Fertile Crescent. Today is typical
of the Jews.
NORTHERN: Light eyes like the hair, low and dolycocephalic cranium, thin,
with a narrowish face equal to the nose.
with the same form of head than the dinarics but with a longer nose. Abundant
hair down in body and in the face,very high noses
root, convex, with depressed.
The difference between Armenians and Dinarics is the following: in the Armenians
it is presented Iranian-afghan race that provides Mediterranean, brachycephalized
by their mixtue with the Alpine.
ATLANTHO-MEDITERRANEAN: High, right nose, dolycocephalics
DINARICS: Very tall, brown, high head and brachycephalic, very long
face, long and more or less inclined nose, similar to people from Near East.
Plain occipital . Short arms
IBERIOIDS: Dolycocephalics with low cranium, dark skin and lows. Narrow
face. Horizontal orbit.
IRANOIDS: High head
and dolycocephalic, long and thin face. Very influenced by the race .Abundant black or dark brown, curly, hair down in the body
and beard, brown eyes. The nose ever is high and prominent, their profile sometimes
is right almost convex, the depressed and low declined with moderate density
and strong curvature in the wing.
LAPOIDS: Lows, high cranium and dolycocephalic, broad face, very little
jaw-bone and small nose.
MEDITERRANEANS SOUTHERN AND EASTERN: Very similar to the Iberiods but
with high head.
NORICS: Brachycephalics, blonds, plain occipital, were northern that
were brachycephalized by the Dinarics.
Figure 1: Scando-northern racial type
" 2: Faelish racial
" 3: Western Mediterranean
" 4: Dinaric racial
" 5: Eastern Baltic
" 6: Eastern Alpine
" 8: Eastern Mediterranean
" 9: Armenian
Figure 10: Araboid racial type
figure 7 is blank it should be (I think) the Iranoids
GENERAL RACIAL CHARECTERISTICS OF THE SYRIAN
The Syrian region (It includes the Republic of Lebanon and Arabic Republic
of Syria) is divided anthropometrically in four regions:
Lebanon, Alawite, Damas, Homs-Hama-Alep
They re distinguished, by abundant and extensive beard, distributed
on the upper part of the jaw-bone. 37% of this group has clear eyes. The nose
is convex and the depression in the point isnt predominant, but the ultra-curved
nostril is common. The cranium is mesocephalic, very inclined Armenoid type
with vertex nearly the occipital. Are diversifies hisicephalics and akrocephalics,
mainly leptroprosopics and leptorhines. The basis element is the Iranoid is
evident in the big nasality, the great height of cranium and the facial longitude.
Nordic presence is accentuated in the lepthorrinity and leptoprosopism. The
second important element is the Atlantic - Mediterranean, in the third is the
Armeniod. They vary very much from the Maronites, Nusayries and Druzes because
all of them are hiperbrachycephalics consequence of the Armeniod element.
Samaritans also have some relation with Bedouins, Muslims and Turkish, since
in the last the Araboid element is predominant.
Quantities expressed in percentages (note of G.E)
Dark brown hair 39.00
Eyes " brown 34.00
" " hazelnut 0.18
" " grey 0.80
" " blue 19.00
Pale skin 76.00
Inter-ocular diameter 30.00
Samaritans Turkish Maronites Nusayries Druzes
Forehead 104 105 105 106 107
Diameter 132 136 137 139 140
Facial height 124 120 119 124 120
Cephalic 78 75 85 86 85
Nasal Index 67 66 72 65 71
The nose s point is ascendant and the nasal s
pit is marked, so, the Armeniod characteristic of the nose is absent. The
cranium is dolycocephalic,
with a very projected occipital. They hold some mongoloid features. The basic
element is the Araboid and second ones are the Armenoids and Nordic.
Quantities expressed in percentages (note of G.E.) except Inter-ocular index.
Black hair 68.00
Eyes brown 58.00
" grey 10.00
yellowish skin 47.00
Inter-ocular diameter 0.32
Their skin is moderated
dark for the region. The cranium is hiperbrachycephalic absolutely very high
relation to longitude and large. They re
not broad in forehead and face, but these dimensions are greater than in Samaritans,
Bedouins and Turkish. The forehead is narrow if we think of the wide face but
the face is tight related to the bi-parietal length. Theyre mesoprosopics
with a big leptoprosopic inclination. Noses are not very long and with moderate
size, mesorhine type. The ears are big. The dominant element is Armeniod, the
evidence is the brachycephalic the faces wide, mesoprosopism and the
low frequency of nasal appendix. Second is the Iranoid. Third has somewhat
of mixture with Mediterranean, Nordics or Eastern Baltic. It has a extreme
relation with druzes, but those re more Armeniods hence their big bizigomatic
diameter. The Nusayries have more Iranoid elements thus they have longer and
narrow heads, tight and short face and mesorrhine nose. Orthodox Greeks are
less brachycephalics, the head is lower, the forehead is narrow, the higher
and with little wider, that s a consequence of the strong presence of
Mediterranean element in Orthodox Greeks.
Quantities in percentage except Inter-ocular Index
Hair dark brown 52.00
Eyes brown 42.00
" hazelnut 16.00
" grey 16.00
" blue 6.00
Skin clear brown 42.00
Skin coppery 38.00
Inter-ocular diameter 31.00
Maronites Druzes Nusayries Orthodox
Forehead 105.00 107.00 106.00 105.00
Diameter 137. 00 141.00 139.00 137.00
Height 119. 00 121.00 124.00 119.00
Index 85.00 85.00 87.00 83.0
Index 72.00 71.00 65.00 67.0
Syrians Armenians Alawitetas
Forehead 107.00 108.00 110.00
Diameter 139.00 143.00 135.00
Height 123.00 128.00 122.00
Facial 85.00 86.00 84.00
Index 63.00 64.00 65.00
The cranium is high and
hiperbrachycephalic. In the face they re mesoporsopics
in the direction of europrosopics. Long noses and not very big, mesorrhines
and nearly leptorrhines. With brown eyes re very Armeniods.They have
elements of Eastern Baltic and Nordics. Such as the Maronites the main element
is Armeniod. The Nusairiyyeh re different because they re more
brachycephalics. with narrower foreheads and faces, long face like the nose.
Greeks Orthodox, Syrians and Armenians have not relation to the Druzes. The
Greeks Orthodox are more Mediterranean than Druzes, while Syrians are more
Inter-ocular diameter 33
Bizigomatic diameter 0.141
Facial height 0.120
Cephalic index 0.85
Nasal Index 0.71
These quantities are expressed in percentages (note of G.E)
Brown eyes 59.00
Green " 2. 00
Olive " 0.20
Grey " 0.20
Blue " 15.00
Light brown skin 98.00
The main part has clear eyes. The skin is very light for the region. The
Nordic race is very important. The forehead is very high, the nose narrow in
the root and wide in the basis and the profile is right convex with the point
The cranium is hiperbrachycephalus
ultra-armeniod type, is omitted the narrower in the bi-parietal region characteristic
of Iranoids. The inter-ocular diameter
is close, the facial height is very big, very lepthotrosopic. The nose is long
and with moderate size, lepthorrhine Armeniod type in length but not in the
width. Frequently they havent the depressed manner of the nasal point
and convexity. Faces havent got the Armeniod size, we could say that
Nusairiyyeh are a mixture of races that shaped a different form, consistent.The
main component is Armeniod and less than the Iranoid, something of Araboid
Except Inter-ocular diameter these quantities are expressed in percentages
(note of G.E)
Hair dark brown 55.00
Brown eyes 40.00
Hazel nut " 20.00
Grey " 0.80
Blue " 12.00
Sky blue " 8.00
Pale skin 88.00
Inter-ocular diameter 0.310
Their cranium is high and
brachycephalic, but not alike Maronites, Nusairiyyeh and Druzes. The Mediterranean
is evident in the tendency to dolycocephly.
The face is narrow and their nose too. The Armeniod element is predominant,
that is evident in the big size of the cranium and his height in excess, also
the height of the face, the noses longitude and wide dimension. Nordics,
Eastern Baltic and Iranoids elements are present but in a less measure.
Muslims are more Mediterranean than Orthodox Greeks, those are more Armeniods
and Iranoids. Syrians and Armenians have high forehead and bizigomatic diameter.
Thus, Orthodox Greeks have more relation to Syrians than Armenians
Except Inter-ocular diameter
these quantities re in percentages (note
Inter-ocular diameter 0.31
Dark brown hair 45.00
Brown eyes 0.54
Hazel nut " 18.00
Green " 0.10
Grey-green " "
Clear brown skin 42.00
- In the region of Near East in more quantity the Mediterranean Araboid
race lives: high and thin. Purely is represented by the Bedouins in less
grade for the Muslims and very diluted in the other groups.
- In second place come the Atlanta - Mediterranean: strong as the Samaritans
- Third is the Iranoid,
not pure is present in mixture with Armeniods
- Fourth the Armeniod, represented by Maronites and Orthodox Greeks
- Fifth is the mixture Nordic and Eastern. Baltic.
Bedouins Nusairiyyieh Samaritans
Put here to amplify the photographs
STUDY OF CHROMOSOME- Y
Frequencies in (%) of types of haploid in the chromosome - y
The Lebaneses are different
from the other peoples of Middle East because they havent got the following
haploid: 1Ha 1 c 1L. Those haploid is low in % in all peoples of Near East
(except the 1Ha in Arabic Saudis ), thus the
tendency in hold those three haploid is low between the peoples of Middle East.
Lebanese has more % of haploid Med (in comparison with the other haploid that
they have) alike Druzes, Syrians, Palestines and Saudis. Hence, the haploid
is more characteristic between the peoples of Middle East.
% Med Syrians > Palestines > Lebanese>Druzes> Saudis
% 4 S Lebanese > Palestines = Druzes > Syrians > Saudis
% 1 R Lebanese > Palestines = Saudis > Syrians > Druzes
Lebanese has coincidence
with Yemenites Jews because they havent the
haploid 1 Ha, like the Ethiopian Jews.
Roman Jews and Ethiopian
Jews coincide becuase they havent the haploid
They coincide because
hold the haploid 1L the Ethiopians
" " " " " 1
Ha nor 1c nor 1L the Ethiopians Jews
The haploid most characteristic
between Jews is Med. All Jewish characterise in hold haploid Med and 4 S.
The Ethiopian Jews are different from the others
Jews because they dont have the haploid 1 c 1 D and 1 L present in the
Any European coincide with
the Lebanese because they dont have haploid
1 Ha 1 C and 1L. The haploid most characteristic in Europeans is 1 L, its
not in Lebanese. The haploid is high in Europeans in comparison with another
and this is present in Lebanese.
The North of Africa coincide
with Lebanese in hasnt haploid 1 Ha. In
North of Africa the haploid more common is 4 S.
Sub-Saharans has coincidence
with Lebanese in hasnt haploid 1 Ha 1
C and 1 L. Any of those haploid are characteristic in those peoples.
In the Turks the haploid most common is Med but with a valour very low.
- Lebanese re related with Middle East peoples but theyre clearly
distinguish of them in that Lebanese hasnt haploid 1 Ha, 1 C nor 1
L. Because those haploid re present in the other peoples of Near East
in a low percentage. Among the peoples of Middle East, Palestines and
Druzes re most coincidence with Lebanese(In reference with the haploid
- The relation between
Lebanese and Jews is that in these the gen Med is
predominant. Coincidence with Ethiopians Jews is in 100% because they hasnt
haploid 1 Ha, 1 C nor 1 L. Among all Jewish population, the more coincident
with Lebanese re Ethiopians and Yemenites Jews (in reference with haploid
- Theres not coincidence with Europeans except in 1 R. The haploid
most characteristic of Europeans is 1L (not 1 R as is wrote in the article,
observation of G.E.) and its not present in Lebanese.
- Northern Africans coincident
with Lebanese in hasnt haploid 1 Ha.
Sub-Saharans has coincidence
with Lebanese in 100% they hasnt 1 Ha,
1 C nor 1 L.
Lebanese has a strong presence of gene ( in relation with genetic, a branch
of Biological Sciences) Med (46%) is a characteristic of peoples of Middle
East Jewish included and a mighty absence of haploid 1 Ha 1 C and 1 L (0%)
characteristic alike in Druzes, Saudis, Yemenites Jews, Ethiopians Jews, North
Africans and Sub-Saharans.
Jewish and Middle Eastern
descend of a mixture of men that have had only 8 of total variations existent
in the chromosome Y (4 S, 1R, Med, 1 Ha, 1 U, 1 C, 1 D, 1L)
Lebanese Med >4S >1R
Palestines Med >4S > 1L
Syrians Med > 4S > 1L
Druzes Med > 4S =
Saudis Med > 1U > 1D
Jews Med > 4S > 1L
Europeans 1L > 1R > 4S
Northern-Africans 4S > Med > others
In Near East all peoples
hold: Med > 4S > "X",
X is the dependant variable that determined the group.
Example: in Lebanese "X" =
Jewish has coincidence with Palestines, Syrians, Lebanese and Druzes
Med. Common in Mediterranean and Europe
4 S common in Ethiopia arrived to Near East by means of Nile river
See genealogy three of haploid forward
FREQUENCIES % TYPES OF HAPLOID IN CHROMOSOME - Y
POPULATION N 4S 1R Med 1Ha 1
Jewish 336 20 5 36 5 8
Ashkenazi 115 24 12 31 2 3
Romans 44 16 --- 45 5 7
Northern Africans 45 20 2 42 18 7
Near East 32 13 3 28 6 16
Curds 50 8 4 44 6 18
Yemenites 30 17 -- 43 -- 7
Ethiopians 20 45 -- 10 -- 7
no Jewish 230
15 5 50 4 10
Palestines 73 19 5 51 3 7
Syrians 91 10 3 57 3 8
Lebanese 24 29 13 46 -- 4
Druzes 21 19 -- 38 19 19
Saudis 21 5 5 33 5 24
15 16 11 6 2
Northern Africans 137
50 1 26 -- 4
SuhSaharan Africans 199 6 -- 1 -- 1
Turks 98 6 12 26 9 12
Lemba 34 6 6 26 32
POPULATION 1 C 1 D 1 L OTHER
Jewish 7 5 10 4
Ashkenazi 4 9 10 3
Romans -- 5 20 2
Northern Africans 4 4 2 --
Near East 31 ---- 3 --
Curds 8 4 8 --
Yemenites 10 3 17 3
no Jewish 2 6 6 3
Palestines 1 8 5
Syrians 1 9 9 --
Lebanese -- 4 -- 4
Druzes 5 -- -- --
Saudis 5 19 -- 5
EUROPEANS 1 11 37 1
North Africans 1 1 4 12
Sub-Saharan Africans -- -- -- 93
Turks 3 5 20 6
Lemba -- -- -- 29
Solely shown the haploid common in Jewish population
Discord between Groups
EUR /NAF 26.50%
Results are indicatives that religion is the most useful to predict the genetic
nit than geographic location. Example NAF Jews = EUR Jews
GENETIC AFFINITIES BETWEEN GROUPS
Sub-Saharans, North Africans and Europeans form three different groups.
Jewish population: Ashkenaz, Romans, North Africans, Near Eastern, Curds and
Yemenites are a compact group between the groups of North Africa and Europe.
The Jewish group is dispersed in the population of Syria and Palestine, while
Saudis, Lebanese and Druzes rounded.
Inner the Jewish population, the Ashkenazis are more related with Greeks and
Turks. The Ethiopian Jews are practically with Ethiopians.
Multidimensional scale of populations based in haploid of Chromosome - Y.
Triangles represents the Jewish population, quadrates to Near East and circles
all the rest of populations considered
GENEALOGIC TREE OF HAPLOID
In all the world 19
types of chromosome Y exist. Below is shown the genealogical tree of 19 haploid
we can see in the Graphic 2 the haploid Med was formed
circa 20000 years and is descendent of 1 R formed since 60000 years and it
still exists l . He has brothers such as the 1 Ha and the ancestor of 1 U 1
C 1 L 1 D.
All begun 140000 years ago
Med MEA Jewish and no Jews
1 Ha Druzes and Jews of NAF
1 U Saudis, Asiatic
1 C Jews of Near East, Asiatic
1 L Romans Jews, Europeans and Turks
1 D Saudis, Europeans
Med also is distributed between the Mediterranean and Europe and a cause may
be that it was transported by the Phoenicians and the diffusion of Neolithic
4 S was formed in NAF and expanded to East through Nile River and Europe
1 U and 1 C are common in Asiatic
Genealogical tree in the time for 19 haploid of chromosome - y. Each event
mutant in one of the 18 places of portion no re-combining of chromosome - y
is represented by a point (polymorphism of only one nucleonic ) or a quadrate
(a little insertion/suppression).
The mutational ages (in 1000 year or 10 to third potent) are indicated in
the y axis.
The haploid definite for mutational event are on the x axis.
COMMON DISEASES IN LEBANESE POPULATION
A mutation of the gene that codify for the receptor of lipoprotein with low
produce a protein receptor
that hasnt three components. Thats
produced because a nucleonic made a premature cord of termination, strike out
the protein residues.
Three Lebanese patients and one Syrian (all with hipercholesterolemic -high
level of cholesterol in blood) has this modification in the gene.
Called Lebanese allele ( it is a concept related to genetic ) is the guilty
of the high index of high level of cholesterol in Lebanon.
BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN
In a 77% of Lebanese blind children, has a genetic motive.
The marriage between consanguinity relatives, is a determinant factor.
MORE FREQUENT DISEASES
Lebanon has a big incidence of genetic diseases common and, rarest for the
diversity of ethnic groups and the high level of consanguinity marriages in
A research demonstrate
that the Lebaneses genetic structure is Caucasoid
(Although with some Oriental dash detected).
The following genetic diseases were surveyed (some of these were characteristic
of certain ethnic groups and other should be by the regional geographic (sic)
- Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen Syndrome
- Sandhoff disease
- Haematological diseases
GENE that codifIES for Protein C3
With endonucleasas (enzymes with capacity to decipher the genetic structure
of individuals is detected a high frequency of fragment SAC1 and a low fre
quency of TAQ1.
Theres a mutation
called Delta8nt solely present in Maronite Community that
produces deficiency of one enzyme which motive hyperplasia adrenal
This ill is too frequent in Lebanese population, was detected in MARONITES
migrant who lives in Cyprus
In Lebanon a mutation of gene CFTR is common and causes the high frequency
of fibrosis cystic in the people.
FIBROSIS CYSTIC IN EUROPE
The mutation G542X is the second in Europe after DF508 that produces fibrosis
The frequency in the mutation of the gene G542X producer of fibrosis cystic,
vary between the populations groups of Europe, is most common in the South
West than in the North East. The places with high values of G542X correspond
to the old sites once occupied by Phoenicians in Western, hence this mutation
is named "Phoenician Mutation".
180,000 years ago the Homo Sapiens was born in the Sub-Saharan region and
only 20,000 years later distributed towards Southwest Asia, lately in 40,000
BC were dispersed in Europe. That moment was the start of the own genetic evolution
of each sub-specie thus formed the five sub-species existent until nowadays.
As we may see in the maps, in the Near East region the following sub-
groups of sub-specie Caucasoid (white race) is distributed
- Mediterranean: Iberoid, Atlantic-Mediterranean and Dinarazed
In the Lebanese region Armeniods, Dinarics and
elements are present, the Araboid element is absent thus it may us classify
main part of Lebanese as "Syrians Armenoids".
A region united to Lebanon in a
geographic and historical
point of view is Syrian coast wider in early times all the region was unified
the name of "Cannaneanss country".
In all Near East different
ethnic groups generally exist accompanied by the sub-specie that they belong
Lebanon isnt an exception. The "religious
is an essential element for codified ethnic groups.
In Christians communities
the element "Syrian Armenia" is
characteristic, while in the Muslims add an strong presence of Araboid element. This suggest that
the history such as was counted happened.
To element "Syrian
to the Canaanites (aboriginal inhabitants of Lebanon) and in the VII AD Century
one part resisted the Arab
invaders and one part mixed with them. The first were the Christians. Today,
the Christians come from the old Canaanites and the Muslims come from
the same but with additional mixture with Arabs.
The genetic studies of Chromosome - Y do not contradict with the anthropometric
measures. The haploid Med (characteristic of Near East population) was made 20,000
years ago and its expanded even in Saudis, suggest that is was
formed lately and this is an evolution of the mixture of Armeniods and Araboids,
its the main element because Med in Syrians / Lebanese / Palestines
/ Druzes > Saudis.
But the genetic evolution continues in each population, as we may see in the
high frequency of hypercholesterolemic in Lebanon by the mutation of Lebanese
Allele (or Allelum) respect to religious pertinence we could see that there
are characteristics gene belonging to each community and generally grouped
isolated one from each other, is evident in certain diseases present in determined
Finally, demonstrated the genetic continuous from the Phoenician times to
nowadays in the Lebanese we should see the high values of fibrosis cystic (caused
by the specific Phoenician mutation) and of haploid Med highly distributed
in Lebanon and in places were inhabited by Phoenicians